The New LG Ku990 Viewty ? a Unique Phone

January 12, 2011 by  
Filed under Movie World USA

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Home Page > Technology > Cell Phones > The New LG Ku990 Viewty – a Unique Phone

The New LG Ku990 Viewty – a Unique Phone

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Posted: Nov 11, 2008 |Comments: 0
| Views: 120 |



The new LG KU990 Viewty is highly unique. To start with it does not have keypad; instead it is fully controlled through its large 3 inch touch screen display. The phone is the first form LG to support You Tube video. This makes it easy to share videos quickly.

The LG KU990 Viewty has a high specification camera. This camera not only clicks still but also shoots video clip. They can also be uploaded to a You Tube account. This makes it available for the world to see. This new innovative technology frees the users form getting bounded to a PC for uploading, formatting and organizing the video clips.

The LG KU990 Viewty has a camera that offers a flash for low light conditions. There is also a zoom function. This allows the users to capture a close up picture, it is also useful while recording a video. In fact the phone has the highest resolution video captures available in the present.  No other phone records a video at 120 frames per second. There are other camera features like auto focus. This lets the users to capture sharp and clear pictures. There is also an image stabilizer.

The LG KU990 Viewty is a 3G enabled device. This technology makes it possible to upload new videos. Also other internet functions are easy and quick to access through this technology.  The phone provides the users with a ‘broadband like’ speed. This makes it easier for the users to upload their video clips to their You tube account.

The videos can also be posted on mobile blogs for sharing it with family and friends. The 3G technology in the LG KU990 Viewty also gives an access to the latest news and sports headlines. The viewers can watch new music videos and pre release movie trailers. There is also a video calling facility in the LG KU990 Viewty.

The LG Viewty is a true successor to the highly popular LG Prada phone. The looks are quite similar with its large touch screen and thin dimensions. The phone features a matt black finish. This makes it an irresistible beauty.

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Dharmendra Chaudhary
About the Author:

Sony C905 Gold, Sony C905i Black and Sony C902i Bronze are the popular Mobile Phone deals and these deals are available on Online Mobile Phone Shop UK.


Dharmendra Chaudhary is a Content optimiser for Chums IT Systems PVT LTD.

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This phone is very good for business, personal or entertainment use. A perfect travel companion, the Sony Ericsson Idou is definitely a must have with its high quality camera.

By:
Dharmendra Chaudharyl

Technology>
Cell Phonesl
May 25, 2009
lViews: 129

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Sony C905 Gold, Sony C905i Black and Sony C902i Bronze are the popular Mobile Phone deals and these deals are available on Online Mobile Phone Shop UK.


Dharmendra Chaudhary is a Content optimiser for Chums IT Systems PVT LTD.

Family Adventures Guaranteed not to Disappoint

January 8, 2011 by  
Filed under Movie World USA

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Home Page > Travel > Destinations > Family Adventures Guaranteed not to Disappoint

Family Adventures Guaranteed not to Disappoint

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Posted: Dec 02, 2009 |Comments: 0
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Now be honest, parents. Isn’t there the slightest bit of dread coming to the surface as you contemplate your next family vacation? First, there’s the whining chorus, “Are we there yet?” This only grows worse when you “get there” and, about an hour into the sightseeing, the kids begin to moan that there’s no fun and they’re bored stiff. Well, I’ve got a prime solution to this age-old problem. I’ve got five destinations that are guaranteed to keep the kids laughing and the parents rejoicing. Check out these ideas: 1) Wisconsin Dells: You may have never even heard of the Dells. If not, where have you been? Hiding out under a rock somewhere? Well, I must admit, the population is only about 4,000 but it’s known as the water park capitol of the world. You can surf or boogie board 365 days a year. You can do family raft rides down super fast rapids, tube down a six-story-high thrill ride, do body slides that twist and turn from ten stories up into flumes and stomach-turning drops. And the water sports are just the beginning. Ride a go-cart, go snowmobiling, bungee jump, creep through a haunted house, or take off on the world’s tallest vertical accelerator. Go to a petting zoo, visit the Bartlett Exploratory with 150 interactive exhibits, visit Wizard Quest’s interactive game of fantasy, enjoy the self Paint-it Pottery Shop. Need I say more. You will not run out of things to do, even if you stay for two weeks. The Dells is a winner. 2) Yellowstone National Park: Everyone’s heard of this place, but do you really know what it offers? Besides the idyllic camping experience, you can go horseback riding, snowmobiling, snowcoach or stagecoach riding, cross-country skiing, kayaking, canoeing, fishing, or cruising around gorgeous Yellowstone Lake. The best place to view wildlife up close is probably in Lamar Valley and the Northeast Entrance. Here you see grizzly, coyote, gray wolf, fox, black bear, river otters, elk, bison, and pronghorn and mule deer. You can watch Old Faithful spout off or go to the Norris Geyser Basin and watch the geysers in a little sweet privacy. The best news for you parents is the excellent Junior Ranger program offered by the park. It offers day hikes introducing kids to the natural wonders throughout the park. A lot of fun. Then come back to the campsite just in time to grill chicken, steak, or burgers for the perfect end to a great day. 3) Black Hills/Badlands of South Dakota: This area takes in a whopping 10,000 square miles of vast prairies, badland landscapes, rugged mountains, and grasslands. It’s also home to seven National Parks and many State Parks. View the breathtaking Mt. Rushmore and the new monument of Chief Crazy Horse. Explore caves or visit an archaeological dig of 50 giant mammoths. Pan for gold, hike, bike, cross-country ski, snowmobile, ride ATVs, or ride horses, Again, the Junior Ranger program is excellent here also. Kids will examine fossils, watch amazing nature movies of the park, and enjoy rare hands-on displays and dinosaur exhibits. If you ever weary of these activities, take in an Old West shootout and a cowboy dinner show. Then take the family to one of the six theme and amusement parks in the area. The Badlands is bad!…in a good way. 4) San Francisco: I can tell you now, San Fran is far, far more than Fisherman’s Wharf and the Golden Gate Bridge. There are two great zoos to choose from: the San Francisco Zoo and the Oakland Zoo. San Fran Zoo is larger and has more varied wildlife. Oakland is part of 525-acre Knowland Park. It’s a bit more laid back and less congested with crowds. The Bay Area Discovery Museum includes 28,000 square feet of exhibits. Kids can climb all over a wrecked fishing boat, learn to ride a unicycle, and create clay animation movies. There are mixed reviews about the Children’s Fairyland. Admittedly, it’s an ancient playground, but young kids seem to adore it. For some of them, it will be their favorite destination. At the Zeum Museum kids can record their own music video to take home, they can have fun in the Claymation Studio, or they can use kids’ desktop publishing to create their own piece of full-color art. At the Hershey Factory kids see how candies are made and get some free chocolate. And, for the older kids, I haven’t even covered the massive Underwater World and Steinhart Aquarium or Alcatraz, the Golden Gate Bridge, and exploring World War II submarines. 5) Kingsmill Resort: This place stretches out over 3,000 acres of Virginia wilderness. For the adults, there are three 18-hole golf courses, 15 tennis courts, and a sports club featuring indoor and outdoor pools, exercise classes, personal trainers, and a billiards and game room. For the kids, a wonderful Kids’ Camp offers 5-12-year-olds a chance to learn tennis, golf, ping pong, arcade games, swimming, and fishing. They also enjoy theme days and the creation of arts and crafts. Kids can also play at the beach area and collect shells, The Kid’s Night Out offers parents a romantic evening alone as the kids enjoy a pizza, game, and movie party. If you explore everything the resort has to offer, Colonial Williamsburg and Busch Gardens is close by. The hardest part will probably be deciding which of these fantasy family vacations you want to plan. You simply cannot go wrong choosing any one of these trips. Have fun.

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Debra Fortosis
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Debra Fortosis is a professional travel agent. You can book travel on her user friendly website. She can even help you easily launch your own turnkey e-travel business.
Book Travel: http://www.mndgetaways.com
Contact Debra today: [email protected]

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Article Tags:
family vacations, family holidays, kid friendly vacations, great vacations, book vacation, vacation for kids, top family vacations, travel, family travel

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Your travel agent needs to know this information. Sometimes, prices only apply to children in a certain age group, so if your child goes from being 12 to 13, a new fee structure may apply. Sometimes, travel agents try to talk you into purchasing tickets with neat entertainment options. That way, if junior comes down with the flu you can switch your vacation to another month without losing any money. Their extra experience will give you tons of perks when you travel as a family.

By:
Shawnthomasl
Travell
Apr 16, 2009

Top Five Reasons Why Cruise Vacations are so Popular

There is perhaps no better way to unwind than taking a great vacation. However, many people find that planning for a vacation can be an additional source of stress. A vacation is supposed to be relaxing, but the preparation for the trip seldom is.

By:
Grant Eckertl
Travell
Nov 26, 2007

For your Next Family Holiday, Choose a Cruise

In recent years, cruises have really changed. Keen to shake off its image as being a holiday type exclusively for older guests, cruising has introduced a wealth of facilities and amenities to make it an exciting, active,

By:
Mr. Poml

Travel>
Travel Tipsl
Nov 02, 2010

What a Travel Agency Provides for the Vacationer

Just as you have many different options when selecting where to travel and what to do when you get there, you also have a variety of choices when selecting the travel agency that will help you to design your perfect vacation.

By:
Mike Colel

Travel>
Destinationsl
Nov 12, 2008
lViews: 367

Warm And Welcoming Narberth In Pembrokeshire

For people planning on going on a short break in Wales, the choices of beautiful places to go is almost endless.

By:
Michelle L. Custodiol

Travel>
Destinationsl
Jan 08, 2011

Overview of Stoke-upon-Trent

The name Stoke is one of the most popular names for places and in historical documents, particularly in the UK. There are over 50 UK locations that carry the name Stoke.

By:
Susan Ashbyl

Travel>
Destinationsl
Jan 08, 2011

Guide to Rome

Rome is one of the top destinations in the world. Why you may ask? The answer is that Rome has a rich culture and a vast history spanning over centuries. From prior to Christianity Rome has stood as a beacon of a city that has fallen and came back stronger than ever, thus the name associated with Rome, the Eternal City.

By:
neha sharmal

Travel>
Destinationsl
Jan 08, 2011

Indian Ocean Holidays: Glorious Weather, Incredible Destinations and Unlimited Fun

Indian Ocean holidays combine the allure of beautiful beaches, charm of brilliant sun and appeal of incredible sightseeing options. Integrating some of the world’s finest tourist destinations, Indian Ocean holidays can never be short on fun and frolic.

By:
Katsoulisl

Travel>
Destinationsl
Jan 08, 2011

Make Disney World a Romantic Escapade for Couples

Disney World can be enjoyed in so many different ways. Here are some ways on how couples can turn Disney World into an ideal vacation spot.

By:
Criss Whitel

Travel>
Destinationsl
Jan 08, 2011

Tuscany Apartments to Enjoy Holiday in Italy

The world’s first multicultural society, our island is Italy’s (and Europe’s) most historically cosmopolitan region. Life is full of zeal in Tuscany. People here are always enthusiastic and celebrate festivals and have admiring culture. This is where Europe starts to take on a flavour of Greece, even of North Africa. It’s not just the occasionally blisteringly hot weather – the unique history of Tuscany, much invaded and an ancient centre of ‘Magna Graecia’ has given it a unique, hybrid culture.

By:
Smartkathy Greenl

Travel>
Destinationsl
Jan 08, 2011

Bentota Beach Sri Lanka

Bentota Beach Sri Lanka offers a wealth of charming beach and spa resorts located along one of the finest beaches on the South West coast. It is almost at one with the Indian Ocean, where people return again and again after experiencing its magic.

By:
Aprillove Andyl

Travel>
Destinationsl
Jan 08, 2011

Dhikala Forest Lodge: A True Gem Of Corbett National Park

The Corbett could not have been the number one wildlife reserve in the South Asia if it had not some fantastic lodges. Yes, we are referring to Dhikala Forest Lodge. It is a fantastic place in Jim Corbett national park with high end facilities and beauty of course.

By:
Varun Shrivastaval

Travel>
Destinationsl
Jan 08, 2011

Travel Fun, But also Travel Safe

Please don’t allow your vacation or escape to be ruined by some villain who steals your stuff, or a careless mistake, or a child’s illness, or any other of Murphy’s delightful laws. Here are some helpful tips for your safety.

By:
Debra Fortosisl

Travel>
Travel Tipsl
Jun 17, 2010

10 Proofs that a Cruise is the Best All-Round Vacation of all

You adore the fuel bills for driving across three states to a great amusement park. You don’t mind the ever-growing hotel and restaurant tab day after day. You gasp at the admittance ticket price to the park, but you pay it anyway. Luxury cruises are no longer a vacation only for the wealthy. In fact, at prices as low as $100 per person per day, a cruise may be less expensive than the pilgrimage to a theme or amusement park.

By:
Debra Fortosisl

Travel>
Cruisingl
Jun 14, 2010

Vital Things to Know Before International Travel

You can travel internationally without passport and currency issues, but you must prepare beforehand and learn what you can so there are no unpleasant surprises.

By:
Debra Fortosisl

Travel>
Travel Tipsl
Jun 11, 2010

Take Two Aspirin and a Relaxing Vacation

Instead of coming back from your “vacation” more stressed and frazzled than ever, why not take a health and wellness getaway? It could just make your whole year a lot more refreshing.

By:
Debra Fortosisl

Travel>
Travel Tipsl
Jun 08, 2010

Tricks each Deluxe Cruise Traveler Ought to Know

You’d love to go on a cruise but you feel uncertain. You see some great cruise offers but how many fees are added on? What do the pros know about cruises that can make or break your dream vacation? Get some rare advice that will help make your cruise the perfect holiday.

By:
Debra Fortosisl

Travel>
Cruisingl
Jun 08, 2010

The Travel Fad Landscape of the Moment

What’s brand spanking new in the travel industry? You like to stay on the cutting edge—to know the newest and most innovative places to go and modes of travel. This article lays out some exciting fads.

By:
Debra Fortosisl

Travel>
Travel Tipsl
Jun 08, 2010

If you Love Travel and have a little Business Sense, You’re Home Free!

Do you like to travel? Would you like to earn great free benefits as you travel and turn others on to travel? It is amazingly easy and inexpensive to become a certified travel agent, and, not only that, but to own your online travel agency. Check it out.

By:
Debra Fortosisl

Business>
Online Businessl
Jun 08, 2010

High School Graduate; World Class Businesswoman

Debra was a single mom with a high school diploma. She started out working at a grocery store—then as a bank teller. But within years, she was earning six figures. When the economy cost her that job, she bought her own internet travel and shopping business. She is a true survivor.

By:
Debra Fortosisl

Business>
Business Opportunitiesl
Jun 03, 2010

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Debra Fortosis is a professional travel agent. You can book travel on her user friendly website. She can even help you easily launch your own turnkey e-travel business.
Book Travel: http://www.mndgetaways.com
Contact Debra today: [email protected]

Come Ski-ing in Queenstown!

January 7, 2011 by  
Filed under Movie World USA

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Home Page > Travel > Hotels > Come Ski-ing in Queenstown!

Come Ski-ing in Queenstown!

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Posted: Dec 08, 2009 |Comments: 0
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New Zealand has so many exceptional places to visit that unless you have all the time in the world it can be difficult to choose where to go. One fact you should be aware of is that the seasons are reversed, when it is summer in Europe, then it is winter in New Zealand. There are 2 main islands, North Island and South Island, both have a lot of interesting elements but it is South Island that attracts most visitors, and has the most sights.

A large part of the Lord of the Rings trilogy was filmed in New Zealand and there are guides who will take you around some of the locations where filming took place. Not only fascinating for the fact they appeared in the movies, they are also some of the most beautiful places you will ever see. See the rolling hills of Matamata that were transformed into Hobbiton, and the volcanic region of Mount Ruapehu as it erupted into Mt. Doom, and then there is Queenstown, a centre of adventure activities and the location of several scenes including the the Eregion Hills, and the Pillars of Argonath.

If your plan is to come to New Zealand for the ski-ing, then the best time of year to visit is July and August. Queenstown is the most popular choice for skiers as it is a resort town with lots of adventure activities, you can find all kinds of activities here to get your adrenalin pumping, from white water rafting and mountain biking to jet boating and bungy jumping. But most famously, Queenstown is known for its range of snow sports.

One of the 4 main mountain ski fields in Queenstown is Cardrona Alpine Resort where you can take snowboard and ski lessons. They have programmes for all ages and abilities and even cater for the little ones. Their Freestyle Terrain contains jumps, hits, ramps, banks, fun boxes, jibs, rails, half pipes, quarter pipes, snowcross, bump terrain and other constructed or natural terrain features.

Coronet Peak has an Instructor Training Programme for aspiring ski and snowboard instructors, whilst Treble Cone has the longest vertical rise in the Southern Lakes and impressive views over Lake Wanaka and Mount Aspiring and Tititea. The ski field is used as the off-season training ground for the national ski teams of Austria and Norway. And the last, but not least remarkable, is The Remarkables with its Ozone Tubing Park, specifically designed with the young and the young at heart in mind. If you want a snow experience with some fun thrown in, then this is the place to go. Have fun whilst you glide down purpose cut tubing lanes in an inner tube.

Of course, along with any ski-ing comes the après ski and night time in the town is buzzing. There are heaps of bars, restaurants and nightclubs to choose from. In terms of accommodation, Queenstown has it all, whether you are backpacking around the country and looking for a real bargain, or living your dream holiday and want the very best of luxury, it is here. There are a wide range of hostels, quality 3, 4, and 5 star hotels and exclusive luxury lodges. B&Bs, farm and homestay selections offer a flavor of New Zealand hospitality, while motels or managed apartments are perfect for those who like their independence and privacy.

Also in the area can be found a number of holiday parks and camping grounds all with good amenities. If you really want to make the most of the fresh mountain air then the Department of Conservation huts are situated in mountain and bush areas. Look online for quality Queenstown hotels and get your holiday of a lifetime booked today!

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Michiel Van Kets
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Michiel Van Kets provides article services for William Sharp who works for Cheaper than Hotels New Zealand, a travel-operator that helps travellers find the right hotel at the right price. By using smart and intuitive technology, customers can quickly search a database offering bargains at more than 48,000 properties in 130 countries worldwide. Find Queenstown hotels, Dunedin accommodation and budget Christchurch accommodation.

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There is this guy i like i go skiing with him and he always comes up to me and asks if he can get in frount of me. Is he using me or does he like me?

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Michiel Van Kets provides article services for William Sharp who works for Cheaper than Hotels New Zealand, a travel-operator that helps travellers find the right hotel at the right price. By using smart and intuitive technology, customers can quickly search a database offering bargains at more than 48,000 properties in 130 countries worldwide. Find Queenstown hotels, Dunedin accommodation and budget Christchurch accommodation.

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Home Page > Business > Training > Twisted nematic field effect

Twisted nematic field effect

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Posted: Jul 09, 2010 |Comments: 0
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History

RCA research

In 1962, Richard Williams, a physical chemist working at RCA Laboratories, started looking for new physical phenomenon that might lead to a display technology not involving vacuum tubes. Aware of the long line of research involving nematic liquid crystals, he started experimenting with the compound p-azoxyanisole. This had a melting point of 116 F, so Williams set up his experiments on a heated microscope stage, placing samples between transparent tin-oxide electrodes on glass plates held at 125 F. He found that if a very strong electrical field were applied across the stack, striped patterns would form that were later termed “Williams domains”. The required field was about 1,000 volts per centimeter, far too high for a practical device, and realizing that development would be lengthy he turned the research over to physicist George Heilmeier and moved on to other work.

In 1964, RCA Heilmeier, Louis Zanoni and chemist Lucian Barton discovered that certain liquid crystals could be switched between a transparent state and a highly scattering opaque one with the application of electrical current. The scattering was primarily forward, into the crystal, as opposed to backscattering towards the light source. By placing a reflector on the far side of the crystal, the incident light could be turned on or off electrically, creating what Heilmeier dubbed dynamic scattering. In 1965 had Joseph Castellano and Joel Goldmacher, organic chemists, try to find crystals that remained in the fluid state at room temperature. Within six months they had found a number of candidates, and with further development RCA was able to announce the first liquid crystal displays in 1968.

Although successful, the dynamic scattering display required constant current flow through the device, as well as relatively high voltages. This made them unattractive for low-power situations, where many of these sorts of displays were being used. Not being self-lit, LCDs also required external lighting if they were going to be used in low-light situations, which made existing display technologies even more attractive in overall power terms. A further limitation was the requirement for a mirror, which limited the viewing angles. The RCA team was aware of these limitations, and continued development of a variety of technologies.

One of these potential effects had been discovered by Heilmeier in 1964. He was able to get organic dyes to attach themselves to the liquid crystals, and they would stay in position when pulled into alignment by an external field. When switched from one alignment to the other, the dye was shown or hidden, switching between two colored states. Called the guest-host effect, work on this approach stopped when the dynamic scattering effect had been demonstrated successfully.

TN-effect

Another potential approach was the twisted-nematic approach, which had first been noticed by French physicist Charles-Victor Mauguin in 1911. Mauguin was experimenting with a variety of semi-solid liquid crystals when he noted that he could align the crystals by pulling a piece of paper across them, which caused the crystals to become polarized. He later noticed that if he sandwiched the crystal between two aligned polarizers, he could twist them in relation to each other, but the light continued to be transmitted. This was not expected; normally if two polarizers are aligned at right angles, light will not flow through them. Mauguin concluded that the light was being re-polarized by the liquid crystal, twisted along with the crystal itself.

Wolfgang Helfrich, a physicist who joined RCA in 1967, became interested in Mauguin’s twisted structure and thought it might be used to create an electronic display. RCA showed little interest, because they felt that any effect that used two polarizers would also have a large amount of light absorption and thus have to be brightly lit. In 1970, Helfrich left RCA and joined the Central Research Laboratories of Hoffmann-LaRoche in Switzerland, where he teamed up with Martin Schadt, a solid-state physicist. Schadt built a sample with electrodes and a twisted version of a liquid-crystal material called PEBAB (p-ethoxybenzylidene-p’-aminobenzonitrile), which Helfrich had reported in prior studies at RCA, as part of their guest-host experiments. When voltage is applied, PEBAB aligns itself along the field, which breaks the twisting structure, stops redirecting the polarization, and makes the cell turn opaque.

Patent battle

At this time Brown, Boveri & Cie (BBC) was also working with the devices, as part of a prior joint medical research agreement with Hoffmann-LaRoche. BBC demonstrated their work to a physicist from the US who was associated with James Fergason at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories. Fergason was an expert in liquid crystals and was working on the TN-effect for displays, having formed ILIXCO to commercialize developments of the research being carried out in conjunction with Sardari Arora and Alfred Saupe at Kent State University’s Liquid Crystal Institute.

When news of the demonstration reached Hoffmann-LaRoche, Helfrich and Schadt immediately pushed for a patent, which was filed on 4 December 1970. Their formal results were published in Applied Physics Letters in 15 February 1971. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the new effect for displays, Schadt fabricated a 4-digit display panel in 1972. This is believed to be the first, fully-functional twisted-nematic LCD ever made.

Fergason published a similar patent in the US on either 9 February 1971 or 22 April 1971. This was two months after the Swiss patent was filed and set the stage for a three-year legal confrontation that was settled out of court. In the end, all the parties received a share of what would become many millions of dollars in royalties.

Commercial development

PEBAB was subject to breakdown in when exposed to water or alkalines, and required special manufacturing to avoid contamination. In 1972 a team led by George Gray developed a new type of cyanobiphenyls that could be mixed with PEBAB to produce less reactive materials. These additives also made the resulting liquid less viscous, thereby providing faster response times, while at the same time making them more transparent and producing a pure-white color display.

This work, in turn, led to the discovery of an entirely different class of nematic crystals, the cyanophenylcyclohexanes. Discovered by Ludwig Pohl, Rudolf Eidenschink and their colleagues at Merck KGaA in Darmstadt, they quickly became the basis of almost all LCDs, and remain a major part of Merck’s business today.

Description

The twisted nematic effect is based on the precisely controlled realignment of liquid crystal molecules between different ordered molecular configurations under the action of an applied electric field. This is achieved with little power consumption and at low operating voltages.

Exploded view of a TN liquid crystal cell showing the states in an off state(left), and in an on state with voltage applied(right)

The illustrations to the right show both the OFF and the ON-state of a single picture element (pixel) of a twisted nematic light modulator. A twisted configuration of nematic liquid crystal molecules is formed between two glass plates, G, which are separated by several spacers and coated with transparent electrodes, E1, E2. The electrodes themselves are coated with alignment layers (not shown) that precisely twist the liquid crystal by 90 when no external field is present (left diagram). When light shines on the front of the LCD, light with the proper polarization (about half) will pass through the first polarizer and into the crystal, where it is rotated by the helical structure. The light is then properly polarized to pass through the second polarizer, set at 90 to the first. The light then passes through the back of the cell, which thus looks transparent.

When a field is applied between the two electrodes, the crystal re-aligns itself with the external field (right diagram). This “breaks” the careful twist in the crystal and fails to re-orient the polarized light passing through the crystal. In this case the light is blocked by the rear polarizer, and the cell becomes opaque. The amount of opacity can be controlled by varying the voltage; at voltages near the threshold only some of the crystals will re-align, and the display will be partially transparent, but as the voltage is increased more and more of the crystals will re-align until it becomes completely “switched”. A voltage of about 1 V is required to make the crystal align itself with the field, and no current passes through the crystal itself. Thus the electrical power required for that action is very low.

To display information with a twisted nematic liquid crystal, the transparent electrodes are structured by photo-lithography to form a matrix or other pattern of electrodes. Only one of the electrodes has to be patterned in this way, the other can remain continuous (common electrode). For low information content numerical and alpha-numerical TN-LCDs, like digital watches or calculators, segmented electrodes are sufficient. If more complex data or graphics information have to be displayed, a matrix arrangement of electrodes is used. Obviously, addressing of matrix displays, such as in LCD-screens for computer-monitors or flat television screens, is more complex than with segmented electrodes. These matrix LCDs necessitate integration of additional non-linear electronic elements into each picture element of the display (e.g. thin-film diodes, TFDs, or thin-film transistors, TFTs) in order to allow the addressing of individual picture elements without crosstalk (unintended activation of non-addressed pixels).

See also

Display examples

References

^ a b c d e f g Joseph Castellano, “Modifying Light’, American Scientist, September-October 2006

^ a b “Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays (TN-LCDs), an invention from Basel with global effects”, Information, No. 118, October 2005

^ George Gray, Stephen Kelly: “Liquid crystals for twisted nematic display devices”, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 1999, 9, 20372050

^ “Merck Annual Report, 2004”

M. Schadt: “Milestones in the History of Field-Effect Liquid Crystal Displays and Materials”, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(2009), pp. 1-9

Martin Schadt, personal communication, 2006/2007

Further reading

Joseph A. Castellano: Liquid Gold – The Story of Liquid Crystal Displays and the Creation of an Industry, World Scientific Publishing, 2005

Peer Kirsch, “100 years of Liquid Crystals at Merck: The history of the future.”, 20th International Liquid Crystals Conference, July 2004

David A. Dunmur and Horst Stegemeyer: “Crystals that Flow: Classic papers from the history of liquid crystals”, Compiled with translation and commentary by Timothy J. Sluckin (Taylor and Francis 2004), ISBN 0-415-25789-1, History of Liquid Crystals Homepage

Werner Becker (editor): “100 Years of Commercial Liquid-Crystal Materials”, Information Display, Volume 20, 2004

Gerhard H. Buntz (Patent Attorney, European Patent Attorney, Physicist, Basel), “Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays (TN-LCDs), an invention from Basel with global effects”, Information No. 118, October 2005, issued by Internationale Treuhand AG, Basel, Geneva, Zurich. Published in German

Rolf Bucher: “Wie Schweizer Firmen aus dem Flssigkristall-Rennen fielen”, Das Schicksal von Roche und BBC-Entwicklungen in zehn Abschnitten”, Neue Zrcher Zeitung, Nr.141 56 / B12, 20.06.2005

v  d  e

Display technology

Video

Current generation

Electroluminescent display (ELD)  Vacuum fluorescent display (VFD)  Light emitting diode (LED) display  Cathode ray tube (CRT)  Liquid crystal display (LCD) (TFT  LED backlight)  Plasma display panel (PDP)  3LCD  Digital Light Processing (DLP)  Liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS)

Next generation

Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) (roll-up display  Active-matrix  Phosphorous)  Surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED)  Field emission display (FED)  Laser TV  Ferro Liquid display (FLD)  Interferometric modulator display (IMOD)  Thick-film dielectric electroluminescent (TDEL)  Nanocrystal display  Quantum dot display (QDLED)  Time-multiplexed optical shutter (TMOS)  Telescopic pixel display (TPD)  Liquid crystal lasers (LCL)  Laser Phosphor Display (LPD)

Non-video

Electromechanical (Flip-dot  Split-flap  Vane)  Electronic paper  Rollable  Eggcrate  Nixie tube

3D display

Stereoscopic  Autostereoscopic  Computer generated holography  Volumetric  Laser beam

Static media

Hologram  Movie projector  Neon sign  Rollsign  Slide projector  Transparency

Related articles

Display examples  Free-space display  Large-screen television technology  Optimum HDTV viewing distance  High dynamic range imaging (HDRI)

Comparison of display technology

Categories: Liquid crystals | Liquid crystal displays

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Home Page > Health > Men’s Health > Female Infertility Natural Herbal Remedies, Causes and Symptoms

Female Infertility Natural Herbal Remedies, Causes and Symptoms

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Posted: Aug 03, 2010 |Comments: 0
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Female infertility is a very serious disorder in itself known to cause a myriad of psychological disturbances in women. It is described as a situation where a woman totally fails to conceive after a long period of unprotected sexual intercourse. Contact could be a year or more. In any population, up to 90% of cases can be solidly identified and handled while 10% of infertility has not been understood very well; the cause may not be identified at all. In other situations, more than 2 problems may cause infertility impacting more damage to a woman’s reproductive health.

Fertility with regard to a woman centers on the reproductive cycle; it is a very rich cycle fully dependent on many factors from hormones to lifestyle. Hormones are chemicals by nature impacting the body with lots of scene moods like flips in a movie. At one moment it turns blue another time it is red and so on. The science of conception till birth is heavy and turns upside down many features in a woman. Many diseases and infections attack the entire line from the birth canal, uterus and ovaries with resultant failure to conceive let alone carry a baby to term. When hormones are not in order and unbalanced and there is an infection or growth, it almost means fertility is compromised in a small way. In the process of drug administration, the situation might get worse.

Ovulation stands out as a major factor in female fertility; if disturbed it is always rough bringing it back to normal. The synchronized events of ovulation, egg movement and implantation are very delicate and without support of precise hormone prescription, may end up throwing away the fetus. Fallopian tubes are the receptors of the egg and provide a clear route without potholes for fertilization to be effected. Sometimes these tubes get blocked or decide to fix the fetus resulting in ectopic pregnancy. The uterus, the home of the fetus for nine months or so, is known to be succulent to very many offshoots like fibroids.

Fibroids are a menace in many women after the age of 30; some mimic pregnancy, others obstruct the fallopian tubes and others disable the uterine wall completely blocking implantation. Age is a normal setback meaning decisions pertaining to child rearing ought to be before 35 years. Normal functioning of the ovaries starts going off slowly after this age alerting the other hormone glands to start suspending production of essential hormones necessary for maintenance of reproduction.

Remedial measures are many and one outstanding herb Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) outshines all. This is a popular herb growing wild in India; its roots are harvested for medicinal purposes. The Ayurvedic tradition has modernized it well and now serves many regions of the world. The main benefits are basically rejuvenation of the female reproductive system from hormonal balancing to the nourishment of the egg. It prepares the uterus in readiness to receive the fertilized egg. It regulates irregular menstruation, increases libido and soothes the vagina wall. Its medicinal value is useful in treating common ruptures associated with pregnancy. It is a perfect toner after delivery stimulating faster recovery and secretion of more milk.

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Dr Andrew Napier
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Find natural Female Fertility Supplements. Know how Vaginal Tightening Cream helps alleviate the problem. Read information about Female Libido Enhancers.

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female infertility remedies, natural remedies for infertility, female infertility causes, female infertility symptoms

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Find natural Female Fertility Supplements. Know how Vaginal Tightening Cream helps alleviate the problem. Read information about Female Libido Enhancers.

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Home Page > Technology > LG 42LD550 42-Inch 1080p 120 Hz LCD HDTV with Internet Applications

LG 42LD550 42-Inch 1080p 120 Hz LCD HDTV with Internet Applications

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Posted: Dec 15, 2010 |Comments: 0
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Great for sports and quick action, the 42-inch LG 42LD550 LCD HDTV offers 1080p Full HD resolution for crystal-clear detail, TruMotion 120Hz technology for just about no motion blur, and a super-quick response time of two.4ms (milliseconds). With LG’s NetCast, you get access to TV shows, movies and a lot of, streamed directly from the web to your tv screen. additionally the} LD550 series also provides compatibility with Wireless 1080p Connectivity (wireless media kit needed and sold separately).

Other options embrace an incredible one hundred fifty,000:1 dynamic distinction ratio for a lot of beautiful colours and deeper blacks, 2 USB ports for connecting external drives for enjoying back MP3 audio, JPEG photo and DivX HD video files, stereo speakers with twenty watts of power and Dolby Digital decoding, and 4 HDMI inputs.

NetCast Entertainment Access brings the most effective net services direct to your TV–no pc needed. Instantly access movies and television shows, news and weather and also the world’s largest library of HD movies in 1080p. (Note: net affiliation & subscriptions needed and sold separately.)
Get your HD film fix If you wish movies and wish major studio releases in Full HD 1080p and Dolby Digital and sound, you may love Vudu, the on-demand movie service with a lot of hi-def titles than anyone else. Over 3,000 and counting. Plus, there is no subscription. thus you simply get what you watch.

Access your queue from the couch
Make the foremost of the in depth offerings on Netflix. currently you’ll watch your favorite movies and shows–from new releases to classics to everything in between–without your computer. Sit back and revel in unlimited instant access to thousands of flicks and television episodes streamed on to your TV set.
It’s YouTube on your tube
No a lot of crowding around your computer to look at net videos. NetCast instantly streams videos and television shows from YouTube for unlimited, direct access to the various net videos whenever you wish them. All you would like is a vigorous net affiliation. Watch that one fellow creating a fool of himself over and yet again.

See LG 42LD550 42-Inch 1080p 120 Hz LCD HDTV with Internet Applications

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Roger E. Mclin
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lg 42ld550 42 inch 1080p 120 hz lcd hdtv with internet applications

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When I tried these settings I noticed a really organic, natural-looking image, one that offered me some surprizes. This set happens to be inherently capable of showing a more-than-generous quantity of color saturation while not downside. I personally like an image that is simply slightly undersaturated, if something (but, I expect this set can accomodate anyone’s style on that score, if yours are totally different than mine).

By:
Roger E. Mclinl
Technologyl
Dec 15, 2010

LG 47LE5400 47-Inch LED HDTV with Internet Applications

The TV was in good condition, wrapped in that foam cloth stuff and with the necessity plastic film over the frame bezel. simple to get rid of all of that stuff and it did not leave any trace of sticky residue that was nice. Jacks are cluster on the rear left with the USB and headphone jacks on the left facet however behind the bezel. This TV is incredibly skinny and not all that secure on it’s stand. The stand is okay,

By:
Roger E. Mclinl
Technologyl
Dec 15, 2010

VIZIO XVT473SV 47-inch Class Full Array TruLED Review

If you are sitting among a -30 degree to +30 degree angle perpendicular to the TV, it’s superb. the image is obvious, the distinction is nice, and this is often where LED performs best. despite the fact that the tech specs say this TV contains a viewing angle of -178 to +178 degrees, it does not say that the image would be consistent throughout. Straight on, it’s perfect; however from an angle, the blacks become brighter and switch grayish.

By:
Roger E. Mclinl
Technologyl
Dec 15, 2010

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Come To The City Of London For A Spring Weekend Break

December 28, 2010 by  
Filed under Movie World USA

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Home Page > Travel > Vacation Rentals > Come To The City Of London For A Spring Weekend Break

Come To The City Of London For A Spring Weekend Break

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Posted: Nov 28, 2008 |Comments: 0
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Are you feeling fed up with the long dreary winter and desperate to start to enjoy Spring? Do you want to get away from it all and enjoy some culture? Maybe a stay in the city of London will help you beat those winter blues and recharge your batteries in one of the most vibrant cities in the world. You can enjoy the many events staged at the Barbican and visiting the West End for shopping and theatre trips.

Independent travellers to London are often surprised at how easy it is to rent a fully furnished apartment for a short break in London. Apartments are available from periods of just 1 night upwards!

You can stay just 150 metres from the Barbican centre in a simple studio apartment with its own fully equipped kitchen and bathroom for well under a hundred pounds a night. Included in the price are linen, towels, broadband internet access, TV, HiFi, direct phone, in-room safe. You will have the flexibility of being able to prepare your own snacks and meals whilst enjoying your own private home from home in London.

The Barbican is Europe’s largest multi-arts and conference venue and presents a huge range of art, music, theatre, dance and educational events. It is also home to the world-renowned London Symphony Orchestra.

Offering an unparalleled programme of film festivals, the Barbican shows a whole host of movies from an eclectic mix of independent directors from around the world.

There are many superb concerts or events at the Barbican Centre. Leading musicians and soloists from all over the world in both classical and contemporary music perform regularly at the Barbican. In classical music, world-famous artists such as Cecilia Bartoli, Simon Rattle, the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, Evgeny Kissin, Maxim Vengerov, Alfred Brendel, Bernard Haitink, Mstislav Rostropovich, Midori, Amsterdam Concertgebouw Orchestra, Yo-Yo Ma have been enjoyed by visitors to the centre in recent times.

In contemporary music the best artists in jazz, country, folk, world, roots, rock, soul and contemporary classical music from around the world are proud to perform there.

The restaurants at the Barbican Centre are popular with visitors and serve an excellent selection of meals, both at lunchtime and in the evenings.

The Barbican is also the perfect location for business travellers to the City of London. Corporate executives on assignment in London enjoy living in the hub of the business and artistic centre of the city. Partners are often happy to come along and enjoy the arts, as well as having the opportunity to hop on the tube at nearby Barbican Station and travel in to the West End for shopping. Everyday life in London offers so much to the visitor with its pubs, olde English backstreets and amazing array of shops and quality restaurants.

One of London’s greatest landmarks within walking distance is the fabulous St Paul’s Cathedral. You can climb to the top and enjoy magnificent birds eye views of one of the most amazing cities in the world.

If you are a lover of Shakespeare you can visit the remarkable Globe Theatre nearby at Southwark which also offers an impressive calendar of events throughout the year which include theatrical performances and lovely concerts.

You can stroll along to St Katherine’s Dock and watch the fascinating comings and goings at the fabulous marina full of sailing boats whilst enjoying a meal in one of the many waterside restaurants.

Engineering enthusiasts love to visit Tower Bridge and watch as this fabulous old Victorian icon opens to allow tall ships to pass through on their way up the Thames. Again, you can enjoy stunning views along the river from its walkways. In recent years, it has become an impressive London venue and it is now even possible to get married on Tower Bridge!

Whatever your taste, a stay in the Barbican area of London will offer you excellent entertainment and sightseeing opportunities. As well as the arts and culture, you can enjoy fantastic shopping in Oxford Street and Regent Street with the West End just a short distance away on the tube.

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Jane A Hannington
About the Author:

Jane Hannington is the Marketing Manager at Go City Apartments. You can visit the Go City Apartments website for the latest short term apartment deals in London. Or phone Jane on 00 44 (0)20 8421 5411.

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barbican, centre, london, classical, contemporary, city, shows, music, festivals, films, west end, shopping, theatre, restaurants, culture, the arts, pubs, entertainment, apartment, apartments, short lets, flats, rental, accommodation, hotels

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How to Arrange for Memorable Honeymoon Tours in India?

Honeymoon is the great way to set the journey for a newly wedded couple to their new world. If you plan to choose one of the honeymoon tours in India, you can make this journey more special. These tours arrange for carefree moments and the opportunities to get closer to each other

By:
Aldwynl

Travel>
Vacation Rentalsl
Dec 27, 2010

Cherishing your dream trip in – Vacation homes in Kissimmee, Florida

Kissimmee – The name evokes an old world charm and a quaint romantic town in Florida. Visitors to Florida have been flocking to this unique little suburb of Orlando for years now. If you bump into any k any seasoned visitor to Florida and ask him about Kissimmee – The excitement will reveal it all.

By:
Frank Pagel

Travel>
Vacation Rentalsl
Dec 27, 2010

Panama: the City of Beaches

Are you bored from your professional life? Searching for a nice place to spend your vacations, holidays with your wife and kids? Then don’t think and pack your bags to visit Panama.

By:
sansalgeell

Travel>
Vacation Rentalsl
Dec 27, 2010

Taking a Break

They have many rental options to choose from namely- Central Gulf Coast, Florida Keys Vacation Rentals Southwest Beach, Panama City Beach Rentals and many more. All vacation rentals are what you need to search if you have nothing specific in mind.

By:
Infogravityl

Travel>
Vacation Rentalsl
Dec 27, 2010

Top 7 Reasons Why You Should Acquire Real Estate Belize Property

There are so many opportunities for business here. Ever dream of owning your own coffee shop? You can do it here in Belize as there are thousands of tourists who come here every month to visit. If you want to distribute or manufacture, there are so many opportunities here as well. Whatever you want, the best thing is you have hundreds of options to choose from to make your business grow.

By:
jerry gaitanl

Travel>
Vacation Rentalsl
Dec 26, 2010

Timeshare Juice – A New Timeshare Exchange Company

Hey, we can always use another timeshare exchange company – especially one that is free. I’ve signed up and will report later my experiences.

By:
Rick Eshal

Travel>
Vacation Rentalsl
Dec 26, 2010

Luxury Serviced Apartments in London

Renting a luxury serviced apartment in central London can be the perfect accommodation solution for visitors to central London. International families enjoy the seclusion of staying in their own apartment in the centre of one of the most vibrant cities in the world.

By:
Jane A Hanningtonl

Travel>
Destinationsl
Jan 05, 2010

Why Rent An Apartment For Your Business Trip To London

Renting a short term apartment in London from one night upwards can be a very cost effective solution for business travellers, especially if you are travelling with others.

By:
Jane A Hanningtonl

Business>
Ask an Expertl
Mar 09, 2009

How To Choose A Short Term Rental Apartment In London

Essential tips for renting a short term apartment while you are working in London. Questions you need to ask yourself. What you need to know before you book.

By:
Jane A Hanningtonl

Business>
International Businessl
Feb 23, 2009
lViews: 131

The Perfect Romantic Getaway Break – Seven Essential Ingredients

Do you fancy a romantic s break in spring break in London where you can do some shopping, enjoy the lights, take in a show and enjoy some of the fabulous restaurants that London has to offer with that special person in your life?

By:
Jane A Hanningtonl

Travel>
Destinationsl
Feb 01, 2009

Romantic Getaway Breaks To London In 2010

Do you fancy a romantic break in London where you can do some shopping, enjoy the bright lights, take in a good show and enjoy some of the fabulous restaurants that London has to offer?

By:
Jane A Hanningtonl

Travel>
Vacation Rentalsl
Jan 16, 2009
lViews: 224

Come To The City Of London For A Spring Weekend Break

Are you feeling fed up with the long dreary winter? Do you want to escape and enjoy some culture? A stay in London will help you beat the winter blues and recharge your batteries in one of the most vibrant cities in the world. Enjoy events at the Barbican and the West End for shopping and theatre trips.
Independent travellers to London often do not realise how easy it is to rent a fully furnished apartment for a short break at the Barbican. Apartments nearby are available from periods of just 1

By:
Jane A Hanningtonl

Travel>
Vacation Rentalsl
Nov 28, 2008

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Jane Hannington is the Marketing Manager at Go City Apartments. You can visit the Go City Apartments website for the latest short term apartment deals in London. Or phone Jane on 00 44 (0)20 8421 5411.

computers and society

December 25, 2010 by  
Filed under Movie World USA

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Home Page > Computers > E-Learning > computers and society

computers and society

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Posted: Nov 20, 2010 |Comments: 0
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The decade of the 1980’s saw an explosion in computer technology and computer usage that deeply changed society.  Today computers are a part of everyday life, they are in their simplest form a digital watch or more complexly computers manage power grids, telephone networks, and the money of the world.  Henry Grunwald, former US ambassador to Austria best describes the computer’s functions, “It enables the mind to ask questions, find answers, stockpile knowledge, and devise plans to move mountains, if not worlds.”   Society has embraced the computer and accepted it for its many powers which can be used for business, education, research, and warfare.

The first mechanical calculator, a system of moving beads called the abacus, was invented in Babylonia around 500 BC. The abacus provided the fastest method of calculating until 1642, when the French scientist Pascal invented a calculator made of wheels and cogs.  The concept of the modern computer was first outlined in 1833 by the British mathematician Charles Babbage.  His design of an analytical engine contained all of the necessary components of a modern computer: input devices, a memory, a control unit, and output devices.  Most of the actions of the analytical engine were to be done through the use of punched cards.  Even though Babbage worked on the analytical engine for nearly 40 years, he never actually made a working machine.

In 1889 Herman Hollerith, an American inventor, patented a calculating machine that counted, collated, and sorted information stored on punched cards.  His machine was first used to help sort statistical information for the 1890 United States census.  In 1896 Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company to produce similar machines. In 1924, the company changed its name to International Business Machines Corporation. IBM made punch-card office machinery that dominated business until the late 1960s, when a new generation of computers made the punch card machines obsolete.

The first fully electronic computer used vacuum tubes, and was so secret that its existence was not revealed until decades after it was built.  Invented by the English mathematician Alan Turing and in 1943, the Colossus was the computer that British cryptographers used to break secret German military codes. The first modern general-purpose electronic computer was ENIAC or the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator. Designed by two American engineers, John Mauchly and Presper Eckert, Jr., ENIAC was first used at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946.

The invention of the transistor in 1948 brought about a revolution in computer development, vacuum tubes were replaced by small transistors that generated little heat and functioned perfectly as switches. Another big breakthrough in computer miniaturization came in 1958, when Jack Kilby designed the first integrated circuit. It was a wafer that included transistors, resistors, and capacitors the major components of electronic circuitry. Using less expensive silicon chips, engineers succeeded in putting more and more electronic components on each chip. Another revolution in microchip technology occurred in 1971 when the American engineer Marcian Hoff combined the basic elements of a computer on one tiny silicon chip, which he called a microprocessor. This microprocessor the Intel 4004 and the hundreds of variations that followed are the dedicated computers that operate thousands of modern products and form the heart of almost every general-purpose electronic computer.

By the mid-1970s, microchips and microprocessors had reduced the cost of the thousands of electronic components required in a computer. The first affordable desktop computer designed specifically for personal use was called the Altair 8800, first sold in 1974.  In 1977 Tandy Corporation became the first major electronics firm to produce a personal computer.  Soon afterward, a company named Apple Computer, founded by Stephen Wozniak and Steven Jobs, began producing computers.  IBM introduced its Personal Computer, or PC, in 1981, and  as a result of competition from the makers of clones the price of personal computers fell drastically.  Just recently Apple Computer allowed its computers to be cloned by competitors.

During this long time of computer evolution, business has grasped at the computer, hoping to use it to increase productivity and minimize costs.  The computer has been put on assembly lines, controlling robots.  In offices computers have popped up everywhere, sending information and allowing numbers to easily be processed.  Two key words that apply today are downsizing and productivity.  Companies hope the increase worker productivity, meaning less working which then allows for downsizing.  The computer is supposed to be the magic wand that will make productivity shoot through the roof, but in some cases the computer was a waste of time and money.

Reliance Insurance is an example of computer technology falling flat on its face, wasting a great deal of money, while producing little or no results.  “Paper Free in 1983”  was the slogan Reliance used because the it had just spent millions of dollars to put computers everywhere and network them.  The employees had E-mail and other programs that where to eliminate paper and increase productivity.  The company chiefs sat back and waited for a boom in productivity that never arrived.

Other examples of the disappointments of computer are not hard to find.  Citicorp bank lost $200 million dollars developing a system in the 1980’s that gave up to the  minute updates on oil prices.  Knight-Ridder tried to develop a home shopping network on the television, and lost $50 million.  Wang laboratories almost went under when they put all of their resources toward developing imaging technology that no one wanted.  Ben & Jerry’s ice cream put in an E-mail system and out of 200 employees less than 30% used the system.  Everything attempted then is currently very common today; on-line services provide stock and commodities quotes, QVC is a home shopping channel on cable television, almost every picture in a magazine has been retouched with imaging technology, and even JRHS has an E-mail system that seems to be valuable.

Other corporations have seized computer technology and used it to reduce costs, but usually the human factor is lost. The McDonalds fast food chain is an example of a company that has embraced computers to help productivity and lower operating costs.  The McDonalds kitchen has become a computer timed machine, “You don’t have to know how to cook, you don’t have to know how to think.  There’s a procedure for everything and you just follow the procedure” .  The workers have in essence become robots controlled by the computer to achieve maximum productivity.  The computer knows the procedure and alerts the worker of events in the procedure and all the worker must do is execute what the beeper of buzzer means.  With such little knowledge of the making of the food, workers have become disposable, “It takes a special kind of person to be able to move before he can think.  We find people like that and use them until they quit.” .

McDonalds managers work even more closely with the computers that control them.  The computer generates a graph of expected business and tells the manager how many people to schedule and when, all the manager does is fill in the blanks with names.  McDonalds computers also keep close track of sales and expenditures, “The central office can check . . . how many Egg McMuffins were sold on Friday from 9 to 9:30 two weeks ago or two years ago, either in an entire store or at any particular register.”  .  The main  things computers do in a manual job is to speed things up, “Thinking generally slows this operation down.” , and for this reason computers have made manual jobs ones of extreme monotony and no creativity.

White collar jobs have remained virtually the same, computers have just helped to enhance creativity and attempted to raise productivity.  E-mail, word processors, spreadsheets, and personal organization programs are widely used by white collar workers.  These programs help to make impressive presentations, communicate, and keep track of everything  so the worker can get more done, and therefore less workers are needed, dropping costs.  This has not happened, over the last 30 years white collar worker productivity has remained the same, while blue collar productivity has almost quadrupled.  This is due mainly to the fact that white collar workers are required to think and adapt to situations quickly, which computers at the moment are unable to due, they only follow code to give a planned response.  The blue collar job requires less knowledge and skill, and so is easily replaceable by a computer.

Computers though have not been a failure in business, they allow information to be shared very quickly.  The home office is a product of computers, people can work from home instead of going into an office.  This has not become very popular due to the lack of touch between people, the loss of contact.  It is the human factor that helps to make business run, the random thought that saves the day, something a computer is incapable of doing.  Computers may help quicken business, but they will never replace people, only reduce their knowledge or creativity by automating the process.

Another form of computers is attempting to totally eliminate people from the picture.  Expert systems are large mainframe computers that have the knowledge of an expert individual loaded into it, and makes decisions that are very complex.  An expert in field is chosen and interviewed for sometimes over a year about their job and how they make decisions.  All of this knowledge is refined and put into a computer.  Another person then enters some statistics into the finished machine and magically a large printout will come out of the machine in minutes with the answers.  Expert systems are used mainly in large investing corporations, but some have been developed to help diagnose diseases.  The hope is one day a patient will lie down and a couple of sensors and probes will go over the body and then a computer printout will have the name of your illness and the drug to cure it.  Expert systems have been used very little mainly due to their high price and because of the lack of trust in them.

Computers have also reached into other places besides business, schools.  Children sit in front of computers and are drilled or taught about certain subjects selected by the teacher.  This method of teaching has come under fire, some people believe the computer should be a tool not a teacher, while others believe why learn from a normal teacher when a computerized version of the best can teach.  The technology of today could allow for a teacher in another country to teach a class through video confrencing.  The attempts to spread computer technology into the class room have produced results and taught lessons as to how computers should be applied.

The Belridge school district in McKittrick California was one of the most technological school districts in America.  Every student had two computers, one at school and one at home, which contained many brand new teaching programs.  The high school had a low powered television station that broadcasted every day.  The classes were small and parent involvement was high.  Even with all of these wonderful things one-third of the first grade class was below the national average in standardized tests after the first year.  Parents were enraged that after all of  the money spent nothing had happened, that the technology hadn’t made the children become smarter, and so all of the computers were gone the next year and traditional teaching was put back in place.

Belridge is an extreme example of people expecting the computers to do magic and make the children learn faster and better, much like companies hoped to raise productivity.  The children were left to learn from the computer, which they did, but nothing changed things actually got worse.  One parent realized, “. . . good teachers are the heart and soul of teaching.” , because computers can only present facts and explain them to a certain extent, where as a good teacher can explain to the student in many ways.

The US has about 2.7 million computers for 100,000 schools, a ratio of about 1 computer for every 16 students.  Experts say that, “Computers work best when students are left with a goal to achieve. . .” , and students are allowed to achieve this goal with proper direction from a teacher.  After many attempts in the 1980’s to put computers into the classroom a Presidential Plan was drawn up:

1.  Give computers to teachers before students.

2.  Move them out of the labs and into classrooms.

3.  One workstation at least for every two or three students.

4.  Still use flashcards for practice.

5.  Give teachers time to restructure around computers.

6.  Expect to wait 5 to 6 years for change.

 

This plan was to help guide the use of computers into the classroom, and maximize their ability as learning tool.  The computer will enhance the future classroom, but it cannot be expected to produce results quickly.  One thing the use of computers in the classroom will help with is the fear of computers and their ability to confuse people.  Early exposure to computers will help increase computer use in society years from now.

The biggest network of connected computers is broadly referred to as the internet, information superhighway or electronic highway.  The internet was started by the Pentagon as a way for the military to exchange information through computers using modems.  Over the years the internet has evolved into a public resource containing limitless amounts of information.  The main parts of the internet are FTP (file transfer protocol), gopher, telnet, IRC (internet relay chat), and the world wide web.  FTP is used to download large files from one computer to another quickly.  Gopher is much like the world wide web, but without the graphical interface.  Telnet is a remote computer login, this is where most of the hacking occurs.  The IRC is just chat boards where people meet and type in there discussions, but IRC is becoming more involved with pictures of the people and 3-D landscapes.  Besides IRC, these internet applications are becoming obsolete due to the world wide web.

The most popular of the internet applications is the world wide web or WWW.  It is a very graphical interface which can be easily designed and is easy to navigate.  The WWW contains information on everything and anything possibly imaginable.  Movies, sound bytes, pictures, and other media is easily found on the WWW.  It has also turned into a business venture, most large businesses have a “page” on the WWW.  A “page” is a section of the WWW that has its own particular address, usually a large business will have a server with many “pages” on it.  A sample internet address would be “http://www.sony.com/index.html”, the http stands for hypertext transfer protocol, or how the information will be transferred.  “www.sony.com” is the serve name, it is usually a mainframe computer with a T-1 up to T-3 fiber optic telephone line.  The server is expensive not because of the computer but because of the telephone line, a T-1 line which transfers up to 150 megabytes of information per second costs over $1000 a month, while a T-3 line transferring 450 megabytes of information can cost over $10,000 a month.  The “index.html” is the name of the page on the server, of which the server could have hundreds.

The ability for all of this information has made for a virtual society.  Virtual malls, virtual gambling, virtual identities, and even virtual sex have sprung up all over the internet wanting your credit card number or your First Virtual account number.  First Virtual is a banking system which allows so much money to be deposited at a local bank to be spent on the internet.  Much of the internet has become a large mail order catalog.  With all of these numbers and accounts, questions come up about the security of a persons money and private life, which aren’t easily answered.

Being safe is a new craze today, protection from hackers and other people who will steal personal secrets and then rob someone blind, or protection from pornography or white supremacists or millions of other things on the internet.  The recent communications bill that passed is supposed to ban pornography on the internet, but the effects aren’t apparent.  There are still many US “pages” with pornography that have consent pages warning the user of the pornography ahead.  Even if the US citizens stopped posting pornography, other nations still can and the newsgroups are also international.  Programs such as Surf Watch and Internet Nanny have become popular, blocking out pornographic sites.  The main problem or beauty of the internet is the lack of a controlling party, “It has no officers, it has no policy making board or other entity, it has no rules or regulations and is not selective in terms of providing services.” .  This is a society run by the masses that amounts to pure anarchy, nothing can be controlled or stopped.  The internet is so vast many things could be hidden and known to only a few, for a long time if not forever.  The real problem with controlling the interenet is self control and responsibility, don’t go and don’t see what you don’t want to, and if that amounts to a boring time, then don’t surf the net.

When speaking of computers and the internet one person cannot go unmentioned, Bill Gates, the president of Microsoft.  Microsoft has a basic monopoly on the computer world, they write the operating system and then the applications to run of the system, and when everyone catches up, they change the version.  Bill Gates started the company in the early 1980’s with DOS, or Disk Operating System, which just recently was made obsolete by Windows 95.  Bill Gates has now just ventured into the internet and is now tangling with Netscape, the company with the Internet monopoly.  Netscape gives away its software for free to people who want the basic version, but a version with all of the bells and whistles can be purchased.  Microsoft is hard pressed to win the internet battle, but will take a sizable chunk of Netscape business.  Bill Gates will likely keep running the software industry, with his recent purchase of Lotus, a popular spreadsheet, he further cornered the market.

Computers are one of the most important items society posses today.  The computer will be deeply imbedded in peoples lives even more when the technology progresses more and more.  Businesses will become heavily dependent as video confrencing and working from home become increasingly more feasible, so businesses will break down from large buildings into teams that communicate electronically.  Schools may be taught by the best teachers possible and software may replace teachers, but that is highly unlikely.  The internet will reach into lives, offering an escape from reality and an information source that is extremely vast.  Hopefully  society will further embrace the computer as a tool, a tool that must be tended to and assisted, not left to do its work alone.  Even so computers will always be present, because the dreams of today are made with computers, planned on computers, and then assembled by computers, the only thing the computer can’t do is dream, at least right now.

 

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Itech troubleshooter is an advanced web development, high skilled professional software Solution Company located in New Delhi founded by, PRABHAKAR MISHRA in the year 2008.The company provides vast range of services to each and every customer in reaching their respective targeted spectators and their valuable information in fix and on steady affordable price. Today, you can easily get a lot of quality services by this company on just dialing a call to the company which includes services like website designing , web application development , Application development , Maintenance , Re-engineering , Flash development , SEO , SEO Services , Computer AMC , Computer Networking , Wireless Networking , Data Recovery , ERP Solution .

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Itech troubleshooter is an advanced web development, high skilled professional software Solution Company located in New Delhi founded by, PRABHAKAR MISHRA in the year 2008.The company provides vast range of services to each and every customer in reaching their respective targeted spectators and their valuable information in fix and on steady affordable price. Today, you can easily get a lot of quality services by this company on just dialing a call to the company which includes services like website designing , web application development , Application development , Maintenance , Re-engineering , Flash development , SEO , SEO Services , Computer AMC , Computer Networking , Wireless Networking , Data Recovery , ERP Solution .

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Home Page > Arts & Entertainment > Movies > How to create a Pixar-like 3D animation

How to create a Pixar-like 3D animation

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Posted: Nov 13, 2009 |Comments: 0
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These days animated characters can be seen everywhere: advertising, movies, websites and even in corporate presentations. If you’ve seen any of Pixar’s 3D animation movies, like Up, Toy Story, Monsters Inc and Finding Nemo – you’ll know that Pixar has created some of the best 3D animation in the world.

This article outlines how the Pixar-like animation production process works.

Cartoon Character Design

Designing a cartoon character means not only sketching the look of the character but also figuring out all the character’s traits and personality. Various sketches are created in rough draft with the character’s personality in mind. It’s important to remember that good characters have clear attributes, are easily recognisable, likeable and unique.

Storyboarding

Storyboards are usually hand-drawn quick sketches, displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing the final animation. The storyboarding process was first developed at the Walt Disney Studio during the early 1930s. It’s the fastest and cheapest way to figure out if your story is going to work before any expensive and time consuming animation begins. It gives the creative team a chance to assess which parts of the story need to change before it’s too late or too expensive to do so.

3D Modeling

The first step on the computer in most 3D projects is creating the outer shell of the objects that will be used in the scene. There are different methods and tools to build a 3D model, but it ultimately ends in the creation of a connection of polygons to form the outer shape of your character or object. These polygons form an approximate outline and are later ‘smoothed-out’ into rounded-shapes using computer algorithms, sometimes called hyper-nurbs.

Character Rigging

This is the process that enables an Animator to turn a static 3D model into a life-like character. It’s a technical, necessary step – vital for all good character animation. Rigging is like putting virtual skeletons and muscles within a virtual skin. 3d riggers use complex techniques such as joints, muscle simulations, IK and FK dynamics, morphs and weighting. The final rigged character can be passed on to the animators in order to bring the final story to life.

Texturing

Texturing is the part of the designers job that puts in the bumps, lumps, reflections, colouring, specular lighting and other bits of jiggery pokery that make the final render. A comprehensive material system is key to creating realistic and convincing 3D images. Texturing includes defining an object’s colour, diffusion, luminance, transparency, reflection, environment, fog, bump, alpha, specular, glow, displacement and illumination properties.

Lighting

Lighting your scene is both an artistic and technical process, essential in creating the final look and mood of the finished render. Lighting is a very important aspect of any 3D render. Just like a poorly lit photograph, a 3D scene without proper lighting will fail to meet modern high expectations.

3D artists use lighting set-ups such as spot lights, tube lighting and global illumination. There are different kinds of shadow simulation such as soft, hard or realistic area shadows. The more realistic the shadow and lighting, the longer it will take to render the image.

Sound

Actors voices are recorded early on in the production process so animators can lip sync the characters to the recorded audio. Sound effects and music are usually added towards the end of the production, just like any other movie.

Animation

Animation is a highly time-consuming art form that has developed from techniques pioneered by the first Disney animators, classic 2D animators like Richard Williams, and modern 3D animation studios like Pixar and Dreamworks. Cartoon animation is entirely different from motion-capture animation as it takes advantage of exaggeration techniques, such as squash and stretch – creating poses and movements that aren’t actually possible in the real world.

Dynamics and Simulations

To create added realism, a cartoon animation may require dynamic simulations such as gravity, Wind, Collisions, Hair, Fur and Jiggle – to name a few. Sophisticated Hair and Cloth simulations add greatly to the final render times.

Rendering

A rendering is a particular view of a 3D model that has been converted into a realistic image. Final renders include lighting, shadows, reflection and refraction and the application of textures to surfaces.  Movies show 24 frames per second and a single one of these frames can take anything from minutes to hours to render. By linking up several computers, or render farms, frames can be computed at a faster rate. It’s generally true that the more complex the scene, the longer the render.

Final Edit

At the end of the production process, there’s still some cutting and pasting of scenes needed in order to make the final edit. Lastly, all the sounds and music are carefully mixed in to create the final movie. It’s then up to your audience to decide whether all that hard work was worth it!

Rocket your scenes into the fourth dimension with Flying 3D’s animation studio.

copyright Jon Ireland 2009

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Flying 3D
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Flying 3D is a specialist design visualisation and animation company, creating 3D computer generated images (CGI’s) and animation for architects, interior designers, developers and marketing companies.

Using the latest technology and software we are able to produce realistic visualisations and animations either from simple sketches or complex architectural plans.

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Hi i want 3d animation lighting compositing job urgent waht i do
Designing a pipeline for Animator’s using method acting and creativity to more effectively add realism to the Animation
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Article Tags:
3d, pixar like animation, production process, cartoon character design, storyboarding, 3d modeling, character rigging, texturing, lighting, sound, animation, dynamics, simulations, rendering, edit

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How to create a Pixar-like 3D animation

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Flying 3D is a specialist design visualisation and animation company, creating 3D computer generated images (CGI’s) and animation for architects, interior designers, developers and marketing companies.

Using the latest technology and software we are able to produce realistic visualisations and animations either from simple sketches or complex architectural plans.

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December 16, 2010 by  
Filed under Movie World USA

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Home Page > Careers > Interviews > General Knowledge- Vii

General Knowledge- Vii

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Posted: Apr 01, 2010 |Comments: 0
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WHAT IS MOBILE ELBOW?

The mobile elbow results from using the mobile for long hours. Called the ‘cubital tunnel syndrome’, it is also called cell phone elbow’. The problem occurs when the ulnar nerve, which runs across the elbow, down to the ring and little fingers, gets over-stretched and blood supply is restricted, sparked by holding a phone to the ear for long periods.

WHY DOES STEEL GLOW WHEN IT’S HOT?

Hot steel glows red when hot because its atoms vibrate with a lot of energy. The amount of energy varies in atoms re- sulting in a range of colours.

WHAT DOES JANUARY MEAN?

The original Roman calendar had 10 named months from March to December and two unnamed months during winter. These two months were named January and February by Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome circa 700 BC. January is named after Janus, the Roman ‘god of gates, doors and the beginnings’.

WHAT’S THE AAFBAU PRINCIPLE?

The physical and chemical properties of elements are determined by the atomic structure. This, in turn, is determined by electrons and the shells, sub-shells and orbitals they reside in. The rules of placing electrons within shells is known as the Aafbau principle, which originally means ‘building up’.

WHAT IS CHAPTER 11 BANKRUPTCIES IN THE US?

A case filed under Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection is commonly referred to as a ‘reorganization or restructuring bankruptcy’. Chapter 11 is a part of the US Bankruptcy Code under which an insolvent company is allowed to reorganize and is not liquidated. It is not shut down and sold off.

WHY DOES THE JASMINE BLOOM ONLY AT NIGHT?

Like all other flowering plants, jasmine also produces a flower inducing hormone in its leaves when exposed to bright sunlight. This hormone is called florigen (flower-generating hormone) and it migrates from the leaves to flowering shoots during the day. It accumulates in the flowering shoots of the jasmine plant and induces flowering during the night.

WHAT IS A ROMAN CIRCUS?

It was an open air stadium used for public events in the Roman empire, empire. The events usually held in such a circus were chariot and horse races and performances commemorating historical events. The performance space would be rectangular or oval surrounded by several tiers of seats for spectators. The circus would be decorated with ornate columns, obelisks and statues. The first circus built in Rome was the Circus Maximus which also happened to be its largest.

WHAT DOES THE PHRASE ‘CHICKEN OUT’ MEAN?

To chicken out is to stop doing something because of fear or lose courage while doing something. Sometimes, it is also used to ask a person, “Are you chicken?” or even as “Jack chickened out…” The chicken is a timid bird, which also gave rise to ‘chicken-hearted’.

WHAT IS CONTACT SCRAPING?

Social networking has brought about a new trend called contact scraping, where an online company with access to a person’s mail account goes through the contact list and sends out an invitation to all to join the site. Once a person enters his/her credentials, like user name or password, the company sweeps through the contact list. The company gets free publicity and widens its user base, but could put the person concerned in an embarrassing and annoying situation, especially when there are friendly mails from strangers in return.

HOW ARE DEEMED UNIVERSITIES DIFFERENT FROM OTHERS?

Ordinary universities are officially approved by the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India as per the latter’s guidelines for the universities’ overall supervision and administration. ‘Deemed university’ is a term indicative of status of autonomy granted to high performing institutes and departments of various universities. Such status enables deemed universities not only full autonomy in setting course work, syllabus and research centres, but also allows it to set it’s own guidelines for admission, fee and instructions to students. Parent universities have no control over deemed universities in matters of overall administration.

WHY IS SEA WATER VERY HIGH IN SALT CONTENT?

The average salinity of sea water is about 3.5%. One cubic mile of sea water contains 166 million tonne of salt. The salts of the sea come from the breaking up of rocks and gradual wearing away of mountains releasing salts that are washed down by rainwater. It is estimated that more than 400 million tonne of dissolved salts are brought to the sea every year by 27,000 cubic km of water. The second source of salt is rocks beneath the ocean bed. There has been a constant slow addition of sea salinity due to evaporation from the ocean surface, combined by discharge from land.

WHAT IS A CHEMICAL BOND? HOW IS IT FORMED?

A chemical bond is one in which atoms of different or same elements combine to become stable. There are two types of chemical bonds —electro-valent bond and covalent bond. In an electrovalent bond, a metal donates an electron to a non-metal and forms the bond. Such bonds are very strong. A covalent bond is formed between non-metals only. These are easy to break.

IS RAIN WATER COMPLETELY PURE?

Rain water is considered the purest form of water. Impurities and salts present in water on earth are left behind during vaporisation by the sun. However, the rain water we receive on earth is not necessarily pure, as it brings down impurities and particles present in the atmosphere along with it.

WHAT IS ‘THE MAGIC OF SCHEHERAZADE’?

The Magic of Scheherazade is a game for the Nintendo Entertainment System released by Culture Brain in 1989. It is the translation of the 1987 Famicom game Arabian Dream Scheherazade. The game was innovative for its time, incorporating elements of adventure and RPG styles.

WHAT IS FUNEMPLOYMENT?

‘Funemployment’ came into being with the recession, when people began losing jobs. It means unemployed individuals making use of the break to enjoy their free time — travel, take up physical activity and have a good time but at little cost. They may not have been able to do this earlier. The funemployed are young people who have few responsibilities and commitments and can afford a break. They also use the time to find another job, but don’t spend time worrying about it.                

WHAT IS MEDIAWIKI?

A wiki is a web application that allows users to create and edit web page content using a web browser. The term wiki also refers to the collaborative software used to create such a website. Mediawiki is a wiki software package licensed under the GNU General Public License, making it free and open source software. This Mediawiki software is used to run the popular web encyclopaedia Wikipedia, besides all projects of Wikimedia, wikis hosted by Wikia, and many other wikis.

WHY DON’T THE TEETH OF ANIMALS DECAY THOUGH THEY NEVER BRUSH THEIR TEETH?

According to WHO, decaying of teeth is a localized, post-eruptive pathologic external process, involving hard tooth tissue and formation of cavities. There is demineralization of teeth by acids produced in the oral environment, due to action of oral acidogenic bacteria on carbohydrates found in cooked food and drinks. Animals are either herbivorous or carnivorous or both, and survive on uncooked, raw food, rich in fibre, which needs a lot of chewing to digest, thereby cleansing the teeth naturally It is like brushing teeth and massaging gums the natural way But tooth decay is common in pets like dogs, which eat cooked food and junk food like biscuits etc.

WHICH IS THE BIGGEST STAR?

The biggest star found till date is Vy Canis Majoris, in the constellation of Canis Major. It is a red supergiant and one of the most luminous stars, 5,000 light years away from the earth with a radius of 1,800-2,100 times that of the sun. It is so large that its surface extends beyond the orbit of Saturn, were it placed in our solar system. Even light would take eight hours to complete its circumference. Though it is great, it is relatively cool, with a surface temperature of 3500 Kelvin.

WHICH IS THE WORLD’S SLEEPIEST ANIMAL?

The sleepiest animal, considered by the average number of hours of sleep a day is the koala, an arboreal animal with the scientific name Phascclarctos Cinerus, found only in Australia. Though it resembles a teddy bear, scientifically it is close to kangaroos, because it carries its young in a pouch. It lives mostly on eucalyptus trees, sleeping in the fork for 19-22 hours a day

WHAT IS THE GOLDEN ANGLE?

The golden angle separates the florets of a sunflower. Ills an approximation, since three golden arcs add up to slightly more than enough to make a circle. One of the old leaves overlaps and is pushed out in a radial line. This makes space in the inner system for a new leaf to form. New leaves move into the spaces opened as old leaves diverge.

WHO IS CALLED A DIGITAL NOMAD?

A person who works on the move is called a digital nomad. Such a worker may or may not be on the rolls of a company, and could he a consultant/freelancer/a writer on the move. They are persons with a free spirit who like a remote lifestyle and earn as they move, and believe that with discipline and the correct technology, they can be as productive as a person sitting in office. This is new tribe of people and for them, the economic downturn has brought little distress as companies turn to part-timers to save on costs.

WHAT IS A BLACK BLIZZARD?

During the drought of the 1930s in America, with no natural anchors in place, the soil dried, turned to dust and blew eastward and southward in large dark clouds. They blackened the sky and reached all the way to East Coast cities such as New York and Washington DC. Much of the soil ended up as deposits in the Atlantic Ocean, and were called ‘Black Blizzards’ and ‘Black Rollers’, and reduced visibility to a few feet. The Dust Bowl or Dirty Thirties —1930-36 and even up till 1940 — were caused by drought and decades of extensive farming without crop rotation.

WHY DO NEWSPAPERS PRINT A COMBINATION OF FOUR DOTS —BLUE, PINK, YELLOW, BLACK— AT THE BOTTOM OF EACH PAGE

The four dots — blue (cyan), pink (magenta), yellow and black are registration marks used during printing to help ensure the print is aligned properly In offset printing technology which newspapers use, the inked image is transferred from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. These primary colours go into printing a multi-coloured image and have separate plates. Each plate has its individual mark, like the colour dot.

ON WHAT BASIS ARE PINCODES DISTRIBUTED?

A Postal Index Number or PIN or Pincode is the post office numbering or postal code system used by India Post. It’s sixdigits long, and was introduced on August 15,1972. There are nine PIN zones in India. The first digit of the PIN code indicates the region in which a given post office falls, the second digit the sub-region, the third the sorting district. The final three digits are assigned to individual post offices.

WHO FOUNDED YOUTUBE?

Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim, all early employees of PayPal, founded YouTube. Hurley studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, while Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. It was founded on February 15,2005. In Sfovember 2006, YouTube, LLC, was bought by Google me. for $1.65 billion, and is now operated as a subsidiary of Google.

WHAT IS DERVISH MUSIC?

Dervish word originates from the Turkish word ‘darvis’, meaning poor or mendicant. Dervish music began among Muslim religious groups, known for their practice of energetic dancing, whirling, chanting or singing.

WHAT IS A BOOMBURB?

Aboomburb is a booming suburb or satellite townships dreamt up by developers. It gives an idea of wealth, a boom. Boomburg is a similar term. These suburbs are usually not complete towns — though they are self-sufficient.

HOW ARE ELECTRIC PYLONS PLACED ACROSS MOUNTAINS TO TRANSMIT ELECTRICITY?

Electric pylons are tall supports— made of galvanized steel lattice, steel tube or wood — used for power line construction. In normal terrain, they are assembled on the site. In mountainous regions, helicopters are used for power line construction, which are efficient but expensive. In the aerial construction method, the entire structure is pre-assembled and shifted in helicopters.

WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF THE TERM ‘CASH COW’?

Management guru Peter F Drucker coined the term in the mid-1960s to describe a business or product line with a large market share in a stagnant or declining market. It can yield profits reliably for some years without further investment and little maintenance. The term also has its origin in a matrix developed by Boston Consulting Group, in which enterprises have po sitions in either a growing or shrinking market, and either a growing or shrinking total market share.

WHAT ARE PERSEIDES?

The word Perseides is found in Greek mythology and refers to the descendants of Perseus — the name of a prolific meteor shower associated with the comet Swift-Tuttie. They are so called because they appear to come from the constellation Perseus. This shower is visible from midJuly each year, with peak activity between August 9 and 14, and is sometimes referred to as the “tears of St Lawrence”, as August 10 is the saint’s martyrdom.

WHAT ARE JACK-O-LANTERNS?

They are carved pumpkins with lights inside commonly seen on Halloween night. The top of the pumpkin is cut off, the inside flesh scooped out and a face carved on its surface. These are used partly for fun and partly believing that they represent the souls of departed elders who protect houses from evil spirits. Ac cording to an Irish folk tale, the soul of a dishonest farmer called Jack wanders the earth burning amber inside a vegetable. The Jack-o-lantern is supposed to have been named after him.

WHAT IS QUASI-RESONANCE?

A ‘quasi-resonant’ DC to DC converter with zero-current and zero-voltage switching includes a transformer with primary and secondary windings, and periodic switching means connected in series with the primary winding. The topology of the converter is determined by selecting an input capacitor with a capacitance much lower than the output capacitor.

WHO IS AN EXCEPTOR?

An exceptor is a person who chooses to eat meat on special occasions. A vegetarian by habit, the exceptor makes exceptions for days like weddings, festivals and celebrations. After the vegan,eggetarian and flexitarian, it is the exceptor who is basically vegetarian, but makes changes in diet to suit the occasion.

WHAT IS THIGMOTROPISM?

Thigmotropism is the growth of a plant around a support. Tropism is a phenomena by which a plant, usually climber like money plant and ivy, responds to a stimulus. Stems of the pea plant, for instance, are weak and have coil-like structures called tendrils. When tendrils approach a support (stick), a phytohormone called auxin is released in the side of the tendril away from the support. Auxin, a growth hormone, elongates the cells of that portion and makes it strong. The other portion, devoid of auxin, becomes weak and coils around the support.

WHY DO THE EYES OF SOME ANIMALS GLOW IN THE DARK?

Some animals have a special, reflective surface right behind their retinas, called the tapeturn lucidum, which helps animals see better in the dark. When light enters the eye, it hits a photoreceptor that transmits the information to the brain. But sometimes light doesn’t hit the photoreceptor, so the tapetum lucidum acts as a mirror to bounce it back for a second chance.

WHY DON’T WE FEEL THE TONES OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE? 

Atmospheric pressure, which is about 1 kg per’sqcm of area, presses down on our body from all sides, but we don’t feel it as it is balanced by fluid pressure from inside our body We can feel the difference during rainy season or when we go. to places where atmospheric pressure is less, like hill stations, where due to higher fluid pressure, blood oozes out in blood vessels, making the skin over those pink. The reverse happens under water.

WHY DO FOOD PACKAGES CARRY KCAL WHEN THEY ACTUALLY SPECIFY CALORIES AND NOT KILO-CALORIES?

Kilocalories are commonly known as calories and abbreviated as kcal. One calorie (Kcal) has the same energy value as 4.186 kilojpules-(kJ), while one kilojoule is equivalent to 0.24 calories. One calorie contains the amount of energy that raises the temperature of one litre of water by 1 degree Celsius.

WHAT IS SPIDER SILK?

Spider silk, also known as gossamer, is a protein fibre spun by spiders. Spiders use their silk to make webs. They can also suspend themselves using it. Many small spiders use silk threads for ballooning, the scientific term for the dynamic kiting spiderlings (mostly) used for dispersal. They extrude several threads into the air and let themselves get carried away with upward winds.

WHAT IS A SICK-OUT?

A sick-out is concerted action by a group of employees, who call in sick to protest against the company and its policies. It is meant to hold the company to ransom. In ordinary language, it is a strike to show the power they hold over the company’s working. It is a slightly more devious method than taking to the streets openly and raising slogans. Employees hope to put pressure on the company and force it to meet their demands.

WHAT IS UNBREAKABLE GLASS MADE OF, AND IS IT REALLY UNBREAKABLE?

The presence of micro cracks on the glass surface (called Griffith’s micro cracks) makes glass breakable under tension or impact. Such micro cracks are unavoidable as the glass surface comes under tension while cooling from a high temperature into various shapes. However, one can increase its impact resistance by various methods, so it can withstand even the impact of a bullet. The idea is to remove the surface micro cracks by chemical etching, or putting the glass surface under compression by physical or chemical toughening. One can even laminate two such toughened glass plates with resin in-between. These glasses are unbreakable, but when the threshold value is very high, it eventually breaks or cracks.

WHAT IS UNIVERSAL TIME COORDINATED?

Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) is a time standard based on International Atomic Time with leap seconds added at irregular intervals to compensate for the Earth’s slowing rotation. A leap second is a positive or negative one-second adjustment to the UTC scale that keeps it close to Mean Solar Time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. The difference between UTC and Mean Solar Time is not allowed to exceed 0.9 seconds, so if high precision is not required, the general term Universal Time may be used. Time zones are expressed as positive or negative offsets from UTC. While each day contains 24 hours and each hour 60 minutes, the number of seconds in a minute can be 60,61 or 59.

HOW DO SENSOR DOORS WORK?

Sensor doors use motion sensors or presence sensors. The first are used to activate the door when it detects a moving object, such as a pedestrian or shopping cart. Motion sensors can distinguish between objects moving toward the door or away from it. They use microwave technology and utilize the Doppler Effect principle. The sensors emit a high frequency microwave signal — when the wave encounters a moving object, it bounces back and its frequency changes in proportion to the object’s speed; Presence sensors detect both moving and non-moving objects in the path of the door. Presence sensors use infrared technology — they emit an invisible pulsed light signal. The receiver looks for the reflected signal and reacts.

WHAT IS WEISURE?

Weisure time is when work is done during leisure time. With the line between work and leisure blurring thanks to online work and smartphones, a new work-life culture has been created. Sociologist Dalton Conley coined this word, having observed that 9-5 jobs are giving way to this new lifestyle.

WHO DISCOVERED COMETS? HOW IS THE TAIL FORMED?

Comets have been known to mankind since eons, hence it cannot be said that comets were discovered by any single individual. A comet, like planets and asteroids, orbits around the sun — with fee orbital period varying from a few years to thousands of years. A comet is formed of rock, ice, dust and a few frozen gases like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane. When a comet is close to the sun, the radiation from the sun causes the volatile matter in the comet to vaporize and spread out into space in the form of its tail, its dust particles and ions glowing due to sunlight falling on it.

WHAT IS HAY FEVER AND WHY IS IT SO CALLED?

Hay fever is a form of allergy belonging to a group of maladies including hives, asthma and skin problems caused by protein sensitization.During certain seasons, many plants, grasses release their pollens into the air in large quantities. A person is said to have hay fever when he/she is sensitive to these pollens and other substances present in the air. It is called hay fever because the symptoms of the disease appear during spring and fall in England.

HOW IS THE HEIGHT OF WATER TIDES PREDICTED?

As astronomical data is not sufficient to calculate tides, predictions are also based on actual tidal measurements in many areas, over ah extended period. A network of tide stations is equipped to take the following measurements every six minutes: tide levels, wind speed and direction, water current speeds, directions, air and water temperatures and barometric pressure. Stations that provide these daily predictions are called reference stations. Other stations are subordinate stations, which obtain predictions by applying a specific formula to this data. The formula is derived by observing how tides at the two stations related to one another in the past.

HOW DO SOLAR CELLS CONVERT SUNLIGHT INTO ELECTRICITY?

Solar cells use photovoltaic cells to convert sunlight directly into electricity by converting photons (light particles) into electrons (negatively charged particles). Photovoltaic cells are made of semiconductors and silicon, mixed with other material.

WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF THE WORD COCKTAIL?

The word cocktail was used in 1806 and is of American origin. Bartenders would drain the dregs of all the barrels and mix them together, serving the resultant muddle at a reduced price. Cock was another name for spigot, and tailings is the last bit of alcohol, so this drink was called cock-tailings, quickly shortened to “cocktail”.

WHAT IS A CUSHION ACCOUNT?

It is an account a person sets aside which has no demands of monthly expenses on it, and is used as an emergency or luxury fund. A few business people set aside cushion funds to help their business grow, and for stability. The word ‘cushion’ is used as it gives a certain level of comfort to the person.

WHAT IS MAGIC SAND?

Magic sand is water-repellent sand available in blue, green and red colours. When this sand in powder form is sprinkled on water, it sinks and forms a solid substance. This property is used to separate oil floating in the oceans — it can be sprayed on oil spills to enable it to mix with oil and take solid form. It is also used by utility companies in Arctic areas as it never freezes.

IF LEAVES GET THEIR COLOUR FROM CHLOROPHYLL, WHAT GIVES FLOWERS THEIR COLOUR?

Plant cells have cell organelles known as plastids, which are colouring agents. There are three types of plastids — chloroplasts (contain green pigment chlorophyll), leucoplasts (white or colourless plastids) and chromoplasts (contain other pigments). All cells have varying proportions of these. Flowers have a majority of the third type and get their colours from these.

HOW IS A MOCKTAIL DIFFERENT FROM A COCKTAIL?

Cocktail is a style of mixed drinks, and usually contains one or more types of liquor and mixers, such as bitters, fruit juice or herbs. Mocktail is a non-alcoholic cocktail. Mocktail is also know as ‘virgin cocktail’.

WHAT IS A MINSKIAN PONZI DEAL?

The Minskian Ponzi deal was a theory propounded by American economist Minsky, in 1986. Such deals are both unsustainable and hazardous. In Minsky’s view, periods of economic and financial stability lead to a lowering of investors’ risk aversion and a process of releveraging. Investors borrow excessively and push asset prices excessively high. In this process, there are three types of investors/borrowers. First, sound or hedge borrowers who can afford to pay on their own. Second, speculative borrowers who can only service interest payments out of their cash flows. Finally, there are Ponzi borrowers who can service neither interest nor principal payments, and need to keep on refinancing their debts.

WHAT DOES THE MONTH OF RAMZAN SIGNIFY?

Ramzan is the ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar. Muslims fast for the entire month. They are obliged to abstain from all food, drink, tobacco and conjugal relations from dawn till sunset. The spiritual aspects include refraining from gossiping, lying, slandering and all such traits of bad character. The month of Ramzan is a time for spiritual reflection, prayer, recitation of the Quran, doing ‘Zikr’, endurance and selfdiscipline, to train the soul and body to be able to exercise self-restraint.

WHO IS A SEXER?

A sexer is a professional in a hatchery who can tell a male chick from a female. Also known as chick sexers, they are employed to separate the genders as hatcheries have different feeding programmes for them: females are reared to lay eggs and males are bred for their meat. Big hatcheries sex chickens as they have no use for male birds who are killed almost immediately. A sexer is trained to tell the chicks apart by their physical appearance and vents.

WHAT IS A SINKING FUND?

It is a fund set aside as a means to repay funds borrowed through a bond issue. The issuer makes periodic payments to a trustee who retires part of the issue by purchasing the bonds in the open market. Rather than the issuer repaying the entire principal of a bond issue on the maturity date, another company buys back a portion of the issue annually, and usually at fixed par value or at the current market value of the bonds, whichever is less. From the investor’s point of view, a sinking fund adds safety to a corporate bond issue: with it, the issuing company is less likely to default on repayment.

WHY IS A SWINE FLU MASK CALLED N95?
Respirators or N95 masks can block 95% small particles that contain the H1N1 virus, which causes swine flu. These are expensive and can be used only for a single day. These masks are made of three layers of electrostaticallycharged microfibres, that block 95% particles, thus the name N95.
WHAT IS CLAYTRONICS?

Claytronics is an emerging field of engineering, drawing on nano technology and computer engineering. Claytronics or programmable matter refers to an assemblage of tiny components called claytronic atoms or catoms, which could assume the form of any object, depending on the programmes controlling the claytronics. This term also refers to the art of making clay caricatures of public figures, begun in 1996 by an Indian, Charuvi Agrawal.

WHAT DOES ‘TROPICALIZED’ ON A RADIO SET SIGNIFY?

Heat and humidity are the greatest enemies of any electrical equipment, so in tropical countries, such equipment is manufactured to withstand those climatic conditions. In a radio set, tropicalized means coating the electrical windings with resin, sealing the speaker hole with acoustically transparent cloth, installing” felt washers on the control knobs, and sealing openings for the antenna and earth connections.

WHAT IS A GRASS SKIRT?

A grass skirt, also called a hula skirt, is a traditional part of the dress worn by hula dancers on tropical islands. It is made of long blades of grass, most popularly seen on  the island of Hawaii. Grass skirts are also worn in many cultures and tribes in Africa, like the Zulu tribals.

WHAT IS WHITE NOISE?

Noise that is produced by combining sounds of different frequencies together is called white noise. Since it contains all frequencies, white noise is used to mask other sounds. When two or three people talk, our brain can distinguish the sound of a particular person. But if a crowd cheers in a stadium, no individual voice can be identified. That’s white noise and is most effectively used in the emergency siren.

WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL MELANISM?

It is caused when the natural environment of an organism is disturbed due to industrial pollution. As pollutants like soot and smoke darken the landscape, they disturb the environment of many organisms that rely on camouflage to avoid predation. This change makes them vulnerable to predators and creates a strong selective pressure due to which an organism with a darker colour is more likely to survive.

WHAT ARE BATHOLITHS?

Batholiths are enormous masses of igneous rock made up of once-molten material solidified below the earth’s surface. These are usually made of granite and extend over thousands of miles. A well known batholith is located in the Sierra Nevada range of California, across 40,000 sqkm.

WHAT IS THE TATE?

The Tate is an art gallery originally titled the National Gallery of British Art. It is situated on Millbank in Pimlico, London. It was founded in 1897 by Henry Tafe with money earned from his sugar refineries. It was initially a collection of British art, concentrating on the works of Victorian painters. It later expanded to include foreign art and in the 20th century became principally a gallery devoted to Modernism. There are several other recently-opened Tate Galleries’ in England, but the original gallery is now called Tate Britain.

WHO ARE STAGS IN THE STOCK MARKET?

An investor or speculator who subscribes to a new issue, expecting the price of the stock to rise immediately. upon the start of trading is known as a stag. The sole aim of a stag is to sell the shares soon after allotment to realize a quick profit.

WHAT IS A GREEN COLLAR JOB?

A green collar job involves working to better the environment, and is created by firms and organizations whose mission is to improve environmental quality. Work could include policies related to waste, energy and water conservation, solar energy, whole home performance and strengthening local food systems. These jobs are generated by sectors that produce goods which may need a green angle, like energy retrofits to improve conservation, constructing green buildings, composting, landscaping etc.

WHAT IS RASTAFARIANISM?

The Rastafarian movement originated in Jamaica in 1930s, based on the philosophies of Marcus Mosiah Garvey. Today, it has branched out, including groups that still hold Garvey’s beliefs and groups that have disavowed his more controversial stances. His organization’s aim was to unite black people (Negroes) with their rightful homeland, Africa. He prophesied about his people being redeemed by a future Black African king. This  prediction was fulfilled in November 2, 1930, when Ras Tafari Makonnen was crowned King of Ethiopia.

WHAT ARE WIDGETS?

Widget, literally, is a blend of window and gadget, coined by George S Kaufman in his play ‘Beggar on Horseback’. It is a hypothetical manufactured good or product. In computing, the term has become frequently used to refer to objects on a computer screen the user interacts with. A widget is anything that can be embedded within a HTML page. Widgets often take the form of on-screen tools like clocks, event countdowns etc.

WHY DON’T TWO-WHEELERS HAVE A REVERSE GEAR?

A regular motorcycle has a ‘sequential’ manual transmission, meaning you can only shift up or down one gear at a time. It is also designed to spin one way only. Adding reverse would require the crankshaft to spin backwards, or a much larger, heavier, expensive transmission. So it is easiest to dismount and push the bike backwards.

WHAT IS A DUM DUM BULLET?

It is an expanding bullet designed to grow on impact, increasing in diameter to limit penetration and/or produce a larger diameter wound. There are many expanding bullet designs though the most commonly encountered are hollow-point bullet and the soft-point bullet. Such bullets are Sometimes known as ‘dum dum’ bullets. After an early British example pro- duced in the Dum Dum arsenal, near Kolkata, India, there were several expanding bullets produced by this arsenal for the .303 British cartridge.

WHO ARE STILT FISHERMEN?

Stilt fishing is an old tradition practised by around 500 fishing families in Galle, in southwestern-most Sri Lanka. These fishermen usually fish at sunset, noon and sunrise, with each one taking an elevated position and balancing about 2 metres above the wa- ter. The stilts are dug into the coral and bed of the sea. Stilt fishing started after the Second World War.

WHAT ARE SIN STOCKS?

They are stocks of companies which manufacture or deal with cigarettes, alcohol, weapons and sex-related products. They could be directly involved in the business or associated with such activities. Such companies are also called sin businesses.

WHY DOES SNOW LOOK WHITE BUT WATER IS COLOURLESS?

Snow is a block of individual ice crystals arranged together. When a light photon enters a layer of snow, it goes through an ice crystal on the top, which changes its direction slightly and sends it on to a new ice crystal, which does the same thing. Basically, all the crystals bounce the light all around, so that it comes right back out of the snow pile. It does the same thing to all the different light frequencies, so all colours of light are bounced back out. The ‘colour’ of all the frequencies in the visible spectrum combined in equal measure is white, so this is the colour we see in snow.

WHAT IS THE FULL FORM OF AK-47 AND WHAT DOES 47 REFER TO?

AK-47 stands for Russian Avtomat Kalashnikova 1947 (Automatic Kalashnikov 1947). Designed by Russian Mikhail Kalashnikov, it was the assault rifle used by most Eastern Bloc countries during the Cold War. The rifle was adopted and standardized in 1947, thus the name.

HOW IS THE TIME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO COUNTRIES CALCULATED?

The earth has 360 imaginary lines called longitudes or meridians running vertically between the poles. Each of these longitudes is called a degree. The 0 degree longitude passing through Greenwich, near London, is con