Is In Vitro Fertilization ( IVF Treatment ) Your Best Choice For Having A Baby?

January 14, 2011 by  
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Is In Vitro Fertilization ( IVF Treatment ) Your Best Choice For Having A Baby?


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Home Page > Writing > Non-Fiction > Is In Vitro Fertilization ( IVF Treatment ) Your Best Choice For Having A Baby?

Is In Vitro Fertilization ( IVF Treatment ) Your Best Choice For Having A Baby?

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Posted: Aug 18, 2007 |Comments: 0
| Views: 294 |



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To an infertile couple, nothing matters more than having a happy, bouncing baby by their side. But infertility is a big hurdle and the root cause of not being fertile must first be identified. If you can’t figure out what’s wrong, then how can you seek the right treatment? So determining the cause of the problem is the first thing to do.


Having determined the cause of their infertility problems, many couples opt for IVF (In Vitro Fertilization). IVF is getting more popular by the day but is this the best option for you? Is it always effective for problems of infertility? Not really. IVF is costly and have lots of negative side effects for the woman.


Luckily, there are several non-invasive and cheap alternatives to IVF treatments that may produce the result that you so desire. For example, ovarian stimulation, timed intercourse and artificial insemination are viable options.


Infertility can be caused by many factors so it is important to get the right treatment for the right cause. Alternative treatments to IVF can be considered as long as they help the couple to conceive.


You and your partner must make a decision whether or not to go for IVF. If you decide not to go for IVF, there are a number of other options that you may choose as an alternative treatment or solution to having a child :-


1. Child Adoption.


Adopting a child is also getting fashionable these days, thanks to movie stars who are adopting children from all over the world.


Just as in IVF, adopting a child also has its own set of problems. There are many issues and answers that you will have to resolve when trying to adopt a child but thankfully none of these will affect your health directly. When adopting a child, you must seek guidance to help you prepare yourself mentally for the onerous task of raising someone else’s kid.


There are issues involved in child adoption but none that you cannot handle. However, if the idea of adoption doesn’t appeal to you, then you may consider fostering a child instead. Fostering occurs when the parents of a child cannot presently support their offspring. This could be a good short-term commitment for you.


2. Gamete Interfallopian Transfer (GIFT)


GIFT is a cheap alternative to IVF treatment that you can try. This procedure is a similar to IVF in terms of fertilization of the eggs but note that the eggs are transplanted back into fallopian tubes and not into the uterus as in IVF. GIFT makes conception more natural but it may not be suitable for all couples due to different medical conditions.


3. ZIFT (Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer)


ZIFT is a method that closely resembles IVF and GIFT. This method can be defined as : “a way of treating infertility by removing eggs from a woman’s ovaries, fertilizing them in the laboratory with sperm from her partner or a donor, and inserting one or more of the fertilized eggs into one of her fallopian tubes”


4. Tubal Embryo Transfer

This procedure is similar to ZIFT and GIFT. It can defined as “a procedure, usually performed via laparoscopy, in which one or more embryos are inserted in the fallopian tubes via a thin catheter a few days following egg retrieval”


Although most people think that IVF is THE preferred choice in assisted fertilization, it doesn’t always work for lots of couples. For some couples, In Vitro Fertilization cannot address specific problems. For others, it is not as cost effective as other methods and may have only limited benefits.


So think carefully before deciding to go for IVF. There are always other options you can try which are not as expensive and stressful as In Vitro Fertilization.

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Gary Toh
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Gary Toh is the owner of Ultmale.com, a site dedicated to male fertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Get free articles, tips and tricks on IVF treatment here

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What are the best bottles to use for babies ?
How many ivf babies have been born ?
I underwent a laporoscopy surgery in january 13 2010.. they showed a hammorhagic cyst.. now it has been removed..doctor adviced me that i that i should go for a ivf test tube baby..? what shud i do?

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Computer Monitor Buying Guide

January 13, 2011 by  
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Computer Monitor Buying Guide


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Computer Monitor Buying Guide

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You can have the best computer in the world, but without a monitor you can’t even use it! A lot of times people can get so caught up trying to find the right computer, they forget all about the monitor that goes with it. The fact is, when using your computer; the monitor is what you’ll be looking at all the time. If you have a great computer but a poor monitor, it may be time for an upgrade. The question is what do you look for in a computer monitor?

Below, you’ll find a few things that our product specialists recommend our customers to look for when shopping for a computer monitor.

Screen Size: When buying a monitor, its important that you get a screen that is big enough for you to be able to see details with ease. We recommend monitors 17 inches and up, but having one slightly smaller can still work for you.

Screen Type: Generally you have two types of screens that you can choose from, CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) and LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). CRT’s have traditionally given better color quality and response times, but as technology has advanced there are many LCD’s that can compete. The advantages of an LCD (flat panel) monitor is that it almost always takes up less desk space and is more energy efficient than a comparable CRT monitor.

Response Time: With the older LCD models, or the base LCD models, you’ll often see slow response times. The response time is how fast the pixels within the monitor turn on and off. With slower response times, you can see trails left behind of fast moving objects when watching a movie or playing a video game. We recommend getting an LCD monitor that has a response time of less than 16 ms (milliseconds). The faster the response time (the lower the number), the better results you will get as far as response time goes.

Inputs: Most monitors come with a single standard VGA style connection, but some can come with many more options. These include inputs for S-Video, Composite, Component, and even HDMI. The most important thing to consider is whether or not your computers video card will be compatible with at least one of these inputs.

Format: Most monitors come in either the 4:3 (Standard) format or the 16:9 (Widescreen) format. If you don’t have a particular preference for either one, you should go with the 16:9 as this is the format used for HDTV, and it allows you to view more on the screen at once. We recommend the 16:9 format because if you upgrade your computer in the future (which might have a HD or Blu-Ray DVD Player), you won’t have to upgrade your monitor as well. This will prolong the time you use your monitor and you’ll get more from your investment.

Extra Features: You might want to consider a monitor that has more capabilities than just the standard features. Some of today’s monitors come with USB hubs, memory card readers, and even built-in speakers. If you want to save desktop space this can be a good option for you, but note that the cost associated with these extra features will be higher.

Definitions:

CRT (Cathode Ray Tube): An electronic vacuum tube containing a screen on which graphic or alphanumeric information may be displayed.

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display): Refers to a flat panel technology that uses liquid crystals sandwiched between two glass plates.

Response Time: A measure of how quickly a screen can display a change in the brightness of the screen image.

VGA (Video Graphics Array): A monitor standard that has evolved into a term used to designate an image consisting of 640 pixels wide by 480 pixels tall.

S-Video (Separated Video): An analog video signal that carries the video data as two separate signals.

Composite: A single video connector that combines all the color and brightness signals into one cable using a single RCA male connector. Often color-coded yellow, it is the most common type of analog video connection between older VCRs and TVs.

Component: Video signal in which the luminance and sync information are recorded separately from the color information. Component is superior to composite.

HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface): HDMI supports standard, enhanced, or high-definition video, plus multi-channel digital audio all on a single cable.

Video Card: An adapter card used to manage the display on the monitor.

4:3 Standard Aspect Ratio: The shape of standard (non-widescreen) TVs, which simply means the picture “frame” is 4 units wide for every 3 units tall.

16:9 Widescreen Aspect Ratio: The shape of widescreen TV’s, which simply means the picture “frame” is 16 units wide for every 9 units tall. This ratio is used for high definition televisions.

USB (Universal Serial Bus: Connection port on a computer that is universally compatible with many types of electronic devices.

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David Rahimi
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Buy Computer Electronics at DirSelect.com View the DirSelect.com Learning Center Buy Computer Monitors

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How many watts does a computer monitor use ?
Does this program also notify the phone that is being monitored ? If I am correct this monitors the phone and the computer? How many computers can you monitor? How much does it cost?
I cant start my computer! when i press the power button my monitors light turns orange(from yellow) and my keyboard’s light starts blinking…there comes a beep sound three times,1 short 2 long!!

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Odalis Amelia’s Method. Cap 1

January 11, 2011 by  
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Odalis Amelia’s Method. Cap 1


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Home Page > Arts & Entertainment > Literature > Odalis Amelia’s Method. Cap 1

Odalis Amelia’s Method. Cap 1

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Posted: Jul 22, 2009 |Comments: 0
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The method of Odalis Amelia
For edrapecor, April 07 2006, 08:23
Genre Novel.
Continued Odalis Amelia. A love ridiculous.
For edrapecor

In the future more than likely very close …….

Commissioner Palacios was lifted with a bad taste in the mouth. He slept more than wrong. He walked with a painful step and went straight to his ramshackle refrigerator. Uncovered a Coca-Cola Light and began his string of systematically swallowing tablets: Enalapril, Aspirin, Atorvastatin, Vitamin E, fish oil, Vitamin C, B Complex, Ginseng, Trental, Raditidina, Pankreom, Prostagen and Pharmaton. Arrows indicating that his retirement on Channel drank quickly towards him.
Respingo of a shock as I finish up. Stopping work was worse than death. Was faced with a dreadful solitude and live in the middle of sleepless nights watching bad movies on TV.
Dressed with the same tired and under the stairs. The elevator was broken. A building as old as the. Reached the parking lot and in the midst of the vast amount of mobile gadgets, there was the Suzuki Firenza wagon tdi common rail. An allocation of the department. A message to the news that compensation had to come. Also to compensate for the loss of Pontiac Parisienne TD. In silence he saw the scratches on the shiny hood. Damn! Fat — was written with hate.
Palacios nodded. Was introduced in the car and ignited the car.
– Synchronous – mumble dismissively.
Definitely did not like new cars, while putting violent changes. With controlled anger drove to the police station. Down the vehicle, while noting that until the last cadet was aware of his arrival. Was avoided by the absolute totality of the present.
He walked toward his office.
– ¡¡Palacios – behind when she heard the voice that called him with authoritarian tone, but sounded more like fright .– Come to my office immediately.
Palacios was returned on his steps and it is slow
Introduced in the office. The commander said he chair. Palacios as he sat over the puckered entrecejo.
– A bulldog — thought before attacking commander, while watching his subordinate, who drank the coffee they served as the assistant promptly .–
— We will forward your retirement .– commander said. The medical report says that these exhausted. Did not like anything to you and your blood sugar levels of 15-10 voltage does not drop. Must rest. Go to the beach. Or visit your son in Mexico. You call if there is anything we can not handle. You leave your car and your retirement will be medical. O is at 100% of your salary.
– Not even an administrative post for me?.
– My even. The above want fresh meat. I also leave here very soon – the council commander.

Palacios went without a bye. He was dead. Finishing. Dying .. The police had been his life. More than their marriage. More than his son. Many times he lived with coldness emotional farewell, which opened the way to promotion. Now he will be coming to the stairwell. I did not want to live this humiliation. So it went at full speed if an investigation. At full speed he fled the police station. Aimlessly through the streets fixed, until the fuel.
He went to the service station and filled the tank of biodiesel light. He saw the dispenser of newspapers and bought the Latin American Revolutionary. Front page was a photo of a young couple and the title said. Young hit the first co-operators of the lottery prize Campesina. $ 1200000 tax-free. It took the newspaper and threw it to the seat. Rolled up to the Peoples Park and sat on a bench. She saw teenagers running into scooters. Others lying on the grass and there was kissed. Desentonar felt in the place. He saw the cars parked. Nothing. Neither delivered a Pontiac Parisienne.Con taste all their savings to whom he sold one.
Read further in the newspaper:
After many years are restored with the dirt empire. Another said. Treaty of Cuba-US free trade. Consists of the Union Republics of MERCOSUR: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, today is a federal state with a single currency, a single army, federal police, federal taxes, etc, etc. .. In the packet regional assistance will include soft drugs and liquor anesteciantes … Young couple hit the first prize cooperative Miró best .. the face .. it was a resemblance. He memory. Nothing. Do not know. But the name of it if it drew attention. Odalis Amelia Villaqueran ….

Twenty-six years before Martin Palacios and Luis Villaqueran two young policemen were twenty-four years. Pride in their blue uniforms patrolling the steep streets of poor neighborhoods on their shiny blue and white Dodge Aspen. To verify documents dreadful robbers, preventing the illegal sale of liquor, helping the elderly, in order. Whenever they stopped next to a seller and for various informal undocumented, who sold smuggled cigarettes. Ecuador was a little mad that I had more to Villaqueran. He began by stopping to deport her. After stopping for lovers. After posting that she was pregnant and that you arrange the documents. Until the night of Christmas. Both workers were patrolling the neighborhood. See the discussion in the middle of the street. Seized white lights rotating and declined to separate the contenders. Villaqueran advanced concialidor towards the group. He saw the flashes. He felt pain in his collarbone. His instinct is dominated and made to be concealed below the police car. From there she saw the group flee everywhere …. Then came his days in the hospital. Nobody said anything. The reports were very clean. While given the opportunity to enter the course of investigations. But deep in his mind was the image of Villaqueran falling back again and again by the impact of the shooting.

He returned to reality. He saw the giant flat-screen liquid crystal Plasma threw a flood of news. In fact he was the only one who saw. A special BBC delivered the images of Augusta Mangusta from the Federal Police of Mexico along the old MI-24 of the Panama National Guard, which fought fiercely against the gangs who had taken by assault the presidential palace in Tegucigalpa. The beautiful reporter with a ballistic helmet and jacket, with a voice explaining the fighting, while behind her an Augusta Mangusta exploded in the air, shot down by an Exocet, made by the topic pandilleros.Despues step to another issue of the savage rencuentro garden who again sang their songs and was shown as the group’s live concert in the town square in Pyongyang
There \ & # 039; s just no rhyme or reason
only this sense of completion
and in your eyes
I see the missing pieces
I \ & # 039; m searching for
I think I found my way home
I know that it might sound more than
a little crazy but I believe
 
[repeat chorus]
 
A thousand angels dance around you
I am complete now that I found you
 

Palacios was annoyance and went to the van.
– Puerca life – told the glittering vehicle .. It touched the heart and noted with satisfaction that he was serene.
Handle more quiet avenue by Hillary Clinton. After crossing the viaduct by Ernesto Che Guevara came to residential and Mao Tse Tung and his building up George Bush. Decreased awareness of their vehicle and find it an insult that resulted in the side of his vehicle, went to his apartment, insufacto took a 25 mg valium and slept a loose leg. Andes fell asleep in mid-morning it was just that he was just 50 and was beyond the nineties ..

Odalis Amelia woke up with a huge smile. Had bought at the Bank of cooperativism proletarian U.S. Treasury bills with a value of $ 1,100,000. With the $ 100,000 reserve and bought a packet with a comprehensive insurance TDI Ford Endeavor 4×4 and household goods over and over: New Refrigerator. Freezers, stoves, air conditioners, blender, mp3, TV, phone. Clothing .. in view of everything. Julyus left premiering new uniform from head to toe and she finally came to the Cooperative Fresh as a lettuce, premiering magnificent, imperial van. Everything should be the method. Bath and make-up is a piece of paper while stuck in the mirror told him that half of its monthly interest were 3.3% more than their salary. However further work in the cooperative. Julyus wanted to develop their newly found work in the project of the new airplane factory that the revolutionary government with Boeing and other partners built today. So I decided to fulfill the other part of his dream of a responsible child.
He walked with a different step up the corridor outside the building and saw the building opposite. Laughed without dissimulation. Go there was no advertising. any ad that said: This sin is to eat slowly, then goes mad.
Odalis resolutely introduced its new truck in the river bus Marco polo, Hino, Ashok Leyland, crowded into all kinds of uniforms and enveloped in smoke from ramshackle vehicles that ended collapse of the highway full of holes and garbage.

He came to the cooperative and sat down in his cubicuelo, wrapped in the sea of hugs and congratulations. It offers all sorts rained during the day. For the first time in a long time Odalis Amelia actively addressed their work duties.
Received a message:
– What is the most beautiful woman in the world – told the Messenger — Knowing that paradise is deposited in the bank.
– I feel that my partner must show more love – I answer in the middle of typing a smile — because now I am an extremely attractive.
In the headset started to hear the song of Emmanuel
– I will always be the one that you tie your shoe
——————————————
the flavor that sticks to your lips ..
—————————————-
at night will make you to see chamomile asleep on my skin ..
—————————————
swim seaward dock your …….
—————————————-
a rib and will make you my wife.
——————————–
pray to a saint.
———————— feel alive.
Seek new land in the area ….
has grown sunflowers in your twenty ..
in your belly and I had my reason …..
feel alive feel alive …. ……….

Then he rang the old song by Billy Paul .. Me a Missis Jones.
Odalis Amelia both songs hum quietly moved her head rhythmically. I was happy, while Sin nibble a chocolate filled with mango jam.
Upon arrival the rest decided to have lunch at a vegetarian Indian restaurant in the new mall. A new luxury estrenaría.
– That if you’re divine! – The voice said quietly to her back. John Locke was the regular, walked imaginarily dancing while he played his ass. some things do not change.
Road under the midday sun. She saw before her Cristina. The girl went to the guy selling Hot Dogs.
– Cristina Come – Come with me. The cleaning of floors came with a beautiful smile.
– Congratulations! .. Lady. ¡¡That.
– Come pressure Odalis .– Amelia – Come with me to lunch. I ask.
Entered the luxury shopping center. The restaurant was small and obviously very expensive. Only well-dressed people and others with unique corporate management were standardized.
The doorman saw the enarcadas from their brows.
– Made reservation?.
– No. We just want to be in the public area. If it can be.
– Only Visa and Master Gold Platinium.
– I have Platinium President.
The man immediately change their attitude and invited to enter.
— Since it opened I wanted to eat here – he told the other that the place looked timidly.
– It is a weak middle class – the other replied regretting their working uniform.
– Then it was time that a uniform Cooperative Tatar came here.
– Yes, sir – said Cristina – Even Mr Ennio Maria Teresa can not eat here. Accepting green tea welcome.
It was pretty fun to be mesmerized by the Indian-fusion food Vietnamese. Later found that the restaurant was quite expensive. Only for the elite and members of the nomenclature.
Upon returning to work had to be diverted, as a strong manifestation of children under 10 years demanded the departure of Brazilian troops in the fifth inter-African war. After the petitions were referred to applications for study and live without working. The riot police were not nearly sufficient to control the incredible violence.
The girls were forced to run all the way to escape the tear gas and the slogan … The people said and what is right, the better the spirit that the hard work …
When sitting in his last cubicuelo, Odalis Amelia understood that his new yet or had just come into your life. He had to go in his van.
¡¡Que matter – told his HP – No way I engordaré.
At dusk and go home still hear sporadic bursts of machine gun were visible and the columns of fire that devoured the building.

The Volkswagen Phaeton Limousine v-8 bitdmfi common rail teptronic, was traveling at 220 miles per hour on the infinite straight D Silva Lula Highway that runs from Rio Branco to Leticia. E actually came from Cordova to Sucre, Trinidad and ending in Leticia. From there take a flight to Iquitos. Would meet with his contact, who was arriving on a flight from a private house 295 from North Korea. In Leticia and would return to earth way to Caracas.
– Poor! Kidneys – the man said with sarcasm, atronadoramente while listening to Avril Lavaigne from MP3 – What makes any money. Was also mocked for it. Take a few days driving and many more still missing. Left the forest sector and is now moving in an infinite flat and side by side. Fortunately, the autopilot is easier to work, but the vehicle had to enjoy this at the back. With a yawn as he recalled a few days before he launched a ground in the eyes of the policemen Cuban G-2, the CIA and the Chilean Carabineros who tried to stop on the outskirts of Oruro. But I had many years in this job and was considered the best. Hours after notable efforts to stay awake. The glowing advertisement of the service station told him to stop PDV and giant illuminated scroll of Dunkin Donuts, it almost fell out of the car. Coffee and hot turkey sandwiches it sat at the table exterior.La cool breeze of the night it ranged hair. He opened his laptop. No message. 2.25 AM in the midst of that loneliness. Mitsubishi FV Truck Tractor slowed slowly to reapostar. From his table he saw the dirty plates. Came from Costa Rica. That if you were away from their base. It was a consolation. Caresses his Glock in his displeasure with a cartridge and Volkswagen saw the earth filled completely. For what matters. It was stolen in Cordova, put plates and Suriname simply rolled by America.
Finishing her second sandwich was the Hiundai Tucson TDI Federal Police to stop. It dropped two federal police officers. who went to see the Volkswagen. One of the men looked at him and pointed to the vehicle with a smile and nodded. The men went to the computer from the beginning to check Hinduay. The are not immutable. Not find anything. He had a new birth for the limo. After he saw the police walk into the Tractor Truck, who reapostaba and the pump automatically. Something told him that all was not well. He saw the exchange of fire. He saw the policemen killed. I knew perfectly well that the security cameras ever filmed. The bad thing was something to witness and see the security cameras. He could not go to the police or visit. He went to the Volkswagen case, while I thought fast. No trucker killed policemen. Much less any thief trucks. Pay was better. The two men sought to succeed. I saw the shot and fell as one. The other tried to escape to start the vehicle. He was right in the middle of the head. After opening the suitcase. He took a dispenser of anti-tank grenades. A shot against the premises. After shooting the gas pump. He saw the explosions and was mounted in the truck returned. He regretted that the auto ignition too. But that would not be any trace .. four bodies, a limo on fire, two local machines destroyed an abandoned police car … also destroyed.
The advantage is that the highway could walk for hours without getting anyone .. Later inspeccionaría load. What is carrying should be very valuable. Curiosity was killing him to see the load.
Hours later, under a sun that burned the air, opened the trailer and saw the cardboard boxes. Opened and reviewed the contents of both … It desternillo laugh. It was worth the effort.

Days after the Mitsubishi Tractor Truck stopped and the center of Leticia. Was saved and a refuge for trucks. He went to the airport, breakfast and opíparamente off after a while and one of four Havillan towards Iquitos. A flight just above the River. Was connected to the news and read the last few hours …
Petrobrás merged with Exxon-Mobil, after the Atlantic Ocean and Rio de Janeiro in front of the largest reservoir of oil and gas in the world. Drawing up of 50,000,000 barrels per day.
2 .- I still do not get the house 295 aircraft downed by the tornado panavia of Peru’s air force.
No need to see more from his seat, reserved or new flight Iquitos-Leticia. All gone to hell.

Days after a Tatra Truck Tractor T3B928-10 painted with the colors of Paraguay’s mail was introduced in a rented warehouse in Caracas. After the driver was a simple office building. He had no security guard. The man went to the door and security notice. The glass door is disappearing in the lateral wall of glass. Entered the huge first floor. It was a bare area. In the middle of a lift down transparent walls. Was introduced and the lift takes you directly to the floor 95. Came to an equally eclectic, cold and impersonal. Sitting behind a desk in transparent green, was a middle-aged man, who together with his fingers as he saw with executive look.
In silence the man sat down and said, without further ado.
– Everything went wrong.
– It was bad luck. The Panavia Sukhoi RRj 90 looking for a passenger crashed.
– The goods were lost along with our contact.
– In fact he was the goods.
—¿……?
– If my friend. The new commodity is knowledge. The money was a fake screen. Marketed extreme level executives who has committed a mistake …. We do plastic surgery and injectables in corporations to be destroyed from within. That is always better than 20 years in prison …
Contacted me to bring him to Caracas Iquitos by land. Why?
– Despite how slow it is safer. He was very unlucky. We had to anticipate the departure of an executive who sold his Finnish technological secrets to Birmaneses. We are going to inject into a ravine and Chilean beer brewers that Greeks can buy.
Priamo was lifted and received Nectario an executive briefcase. I have also gained. Money was fake, as perfect as anyone. His new assignment was received. Was to find a new executive to replace the missing. It would be an administrator for the Cartel Mariachi del Mar. The third in importance. Mexicans every day growing more in importance in the area narcoindustria. But since the time of the decorated cars and watches to gold clad had happened. Now was the time of investment in Europe and China. Buying the shares, mutual funds, managing companies law. The cartel had lost real Canadian $ 2500000 for the service. Insurance investigated. The party was for her a question. Why nectary told something about a fake money?
Salio, and received the keys of a mercury ls. So I walked the streets and went to the address you indicated the locator on the board of the car. It was an extremely luxurious urbanization. The workers organized … ¡¡… Go to the house and luxury. When he suddenly shot up your alerts. Did not like it.

Odalis Julyus Amelia and were exhausted. Julyus was vicious, strong, experienced and experimenter. They had made love furiously under the Scorpio and the music of the Berlin Philharmonic. Unprotected starting your search for baby. They could buy a clone or a test tube baby. But preferred the old system. It was most enjoyable.
– Veámonos the country – told the hearing Julyus.
– Where? – Asked Odalis scared, remembering his dream.
– In France. Italy Musito .– A boy still fascinated by the beauty of sex.
– No – replied the young man still more restless – You are too attractive to the Italians. And our Latin American culture is not understood there. They do not throw away trash in the street, queuing and not speak on the buses. Imagine yourself, like you take your beer and throwing empty cans into the middle of the street or in the corner listening to music at full volume … the people are very orderly to our way of being.
– And your legs too fine for the Europeans, and yet I risk it …..¿ as you choose exactly those lotto numbers?.
– No – the girl lied to evade — was an inspiration.
– There is an urban legend that says there is a method.
Odalis escaped. The method we came to a strange way, like the method itself.
Doubted that there was someone who had that knowledge. Should continue a bit more advanced.
– ¡¡.– Eyy heard the whisper of Julyus – is there anyone there?.
– Sorry my love. For a moment I thought of the thousands who bet and lost so that we could win.
– Yes. It’s true. But we are not going to feel bad about that. Let’s enjoy it.
– Come to enjoy it – fixed it – thinking and planning what we do. Statistics say that lottery winners to five years are poorer than in the beginning.
– ¡Bah. That does not happen to us.

In the rented warehouse, opened Priamo Trailer. Meanwhile made calculations. A ticket weighed about 3 grams. The trailer had a capacity for 35,000 Kgs, about 35,000,000 grams. Mentally divided, and that tells you that he had more or less 11,666,000 tickets. As a rule I knew that counterfeiters were always half when tickets were different. In this case was 200 Euros and U.S. $ 100 bills. About a margin of error, about U.S. $ 583,000,000 and 1,166,000,000 euros. Check the tickets. Perfect. Original paper, ink, original, marks laser in place, the original michoship. Would review any bank. What is the ruling?. Very easy, the numbering of serials. Miles cents to non-existent. But who the hell he would. Spend years ..
Who would be your friend?. More sure that I was looking for. When revised Mitsubishi, realized he was not original chassis or engine or suspension. Was built with pieces of several trucks, very old indeed. Should draw the boxes, remove the tractor trailer and the new truck. It was a task that could not count on anyone. Suddenly fell into account that the truck had no escort. He opened his eyes with horror. The truck was followed by satellite and care. Ships of insurance on the tractor truck and cargo. Arrive at any time. It took 6 boxes full speed and went through the back door. God wants the microchip is not in any of those take it. He was allegedly used as safe and seek to eliminate it.
Arriving at the corner of the back, heard the explosion. Immediately be hidden in the giant trash bin ..
Hours later, sitting at a table of an empty apartment, enjoying a beer Tecate Light, seeing the piles of Euros and Dollars. He also knew how to play hard. Recover the money.

The Latin American Aeronautical Corporation was a Ventury Join for manufacturing aircraft cargo, passengers, officers and combat. The ads were repeated to achieve personal and continuous. Priamo was very easy to make a testable curriculum. Which was naturally consulted himself, giving perfect results. Small Biscuits for. Now it was a corporate chauffeur. Thing if it was true, that’s what the era, a driver, but charges for special undesirable persons, to escape, and negotiations to release thousands of kilometers of the law. It would be a disguise and hiding.
Driving the Cadillac Escalade 4×4 TDGLP-MFI, leading to one of the managers, who remained buried in the back seat between laptops and cellphones. A little stiff, self-sufficient and insufferable. It looked just done a refresher facial, to become more comfortable being interviewed by industrial relations.
Priamo tires dodge fire insurance paw job interrupt the path for some offenders, while thinking he was hired as online, cheated and stolen truck tractor path to what the theft, to end up being stupid driver who was in the post back. If I could have thrown a escupidazo. She came to the immaculate barns. A huge sign is displayed digital mobile carrier Corporación Latinoamericana Latin Corra. Where government workers are proletarians and owners. Buy your shares. Partners: Boeing, Aereospaciales, Mikoyan guderich Sumitomo ,…… felt a slight cough. He dropped immediately and a Respingo, ceremoniously opened the back door. The other fell without leaving, to quickly integrate a group of Israeli and Iranian aircraft engineers who were talking animatedly, all introduced in the company. He returned to see the digital ad; showed a fighter jet taking off. The 908 … Tahirza sign showing the digital characters. Here born within 10 weeks, 8 days, 4 hours and twelve seconds, eleven, ten, etc.. Model also showed another passenger: the Xixata 408, helicopters, executive … the man was watching propaganda. More or less understand everything

That night came on a Boeing 777 Mexicana Rosiris the dazzling star of the devil Jalisco. Caused a great stir; interviews, suggestive photos, presentations on TV, national tour, Caracas, Maracaibo, Cali, Guayaquil, Manaus .. After days of rest in Cartagena, Aruba, Margarita, and allowed to bathe naked with 18 men met in a row. .

Rosiris was completely naked in the middle of the heart-shaped bed. Not so fresh nor so beautiful as it appeared on television. The effects of alcohol, drugs and men also left their mark.
– Hello Nectario – said the thin man with white hair and dressed in black closed while smoking a Cuban black snuff .— I have come to know.
– Yes – said the cartel — The man should not worry. Find another executive.
– And the money – said the two women throwing 0 gigantic smoke while off a lock of his hair red and green – It took a lot of work to use the printers in the North Koreans. They like to make money for them.
– There is one small detail – said the man sitting on the edge of the bed and moving a finger across the turned legs — review the accident and the Peruvian air force us privately denied the incident. They do not have panavias tornadoes. Cost much money to leave things as they are.

The almond-shaped eyes and eyelashes. Everything else was meant by itself.
– The poster is not playing – he announced.
– No one plays. In any case we do not. Our driver had hired a part of the allotment, another term development. Was induced.
– Do not you?.
– Not for me.
— What do you do?. You deleted?.
– Absolutely. That is on schedule. But first I must find the money. I gave him a new assignment. But I suddenly became transparent. I find it.
The woman looked at the mature man and told him suddenly.
Satisfáceme. I want pain. I know you are expert.

Hours later at a Chrysler A-300-TD-10V GLP-MFI teptronic, moved by the lonely highway in the morning. He hurt his hands and feet. But you have fulfilled your task satisfying. Definitely, if someone was in the sane world, please submit it. Surely not as crazy as himself. Then play with the Mariachi poster of the sea was like to dance a bolero with bell hungry.

Palacios came to the tranquility of defeat. Tirelessly looked History Channel, CNN and Cubavison. Self-absorbed as he thought he had now lived off the sugar, salt, meat, margarine and mayonnaise; could only eat some vegetables and legumes, a little more and you have removed the water.
The door rang monotonously.
Palacios opened and ran into the small figure of the concierge.
– Mr. Palacios. Better get off and see this.
Palacios fell silent. His calm and low voltage torn away when he saw the four Cooper tires of the van. His truck did not have 2400 miles and it was as ramshackle as the pots and parked next to it.
At the same silence went to his apartment.

That night mounted a guard from the small window in the kitchen. Vigile caressing her flower Diana monotonically loaded with steel shot. Then he saw the two guys with a portable player at full volume. One was mounted on the bonnet and flamenco dance, the other was mounted on the roof and danced violently on it. The first steel Balín impact on the bottom left of the flamenco dancer. The second Balín hit in the mouth of the stomach of the rapper.
Slept very satisfied after Palacios.

He stood up with a very light mood. The rosary of pills did not find it so bitter and demoralizing. So he decided to walk. He saw again sunk into the body over the new. Tomorrow take the van to the inspection of insurance. Malicious damage are not repeated. Walk on sidewalks. In the distance he saw the Mcdonnal. Why not?. Tension and sugar were more than good. Furthermore eat chicken and turkey burgers. It did, ate 3 burgers with added hot sauce and jalapeños in a lot of salt, then took two diet pepsi. As I am a huequito there ate half a chicken with the potato Brosto. Arequipa donuts and chocolate meringue. Walk two blocks and ate a jumbo hot dog with Polish sausage, continued walking. ¡¡Bananas, grapes, bananas and 6 also bought two bunches of grapes and ate with appetite, and a few blocks beyond ate two loaves of bread and cheese with jamos. There was when I noticed that the legs ele sweating, which was very hot and your heart will jump into the chest.
– Oh god! – Told the waitress – please call an emergency ambulance, unable to breathe and said the shooting scared the young cell.

Hours later, awakened. Was connected to many tubes.
– was lucky – he said the cold and impersonal voice of the doctor who monitors – arrived on time. Brought a police patrol.
– ¡¡Go – said at least — tired voice is anything to go by.
Was it a heart attack?.
– I assure you not. He was a strong attack of hypertension. Should be disciplined.
– I’m not going to stop eating – Palacios said on the defensive.
– We’ll see – the doctor answered with a professional smile – the one person out there who wants to see it. I will pass. Having said that I speak to women who had small microphone near his mouth and almost immediately entered a couple with a very, very sporty clothing daily.
– Dad – soft voice greeting – that scare us! Far.
– But son. How did you know?
– The guys from the police and also called me and brought me sought. All have been very kind. I have two days a.C.
– Two days?. He was strong then.
The other disputed the head.
– We must control the peak – told the young man pointed out the mouth.
– I promise – lied palaces – When will?.
– tomorrow we will go from here.

In the morning Palacios received his discharge. Added his first insulin injection and the result of soft enzymes. Not very high. But if you had an event.
– All damage – said the embarrassed man, while as a contrite little boy sitting beside his son, while it handles the huge Australian Fairlane ford v-8 TD-GLPS.
– My mom got re-married – told him the child with great caution, it was not the best news at the moment, but I had to know – now is a professor of art University of Canada.
– Yes. That was always the difference between the two. She is in heaven and I on the seabed.
– Please. You are a very good police.
– hypertension, obesity, diabetes and stroke .– described Palacios with regret,
– No .– it was a heart attack insisted his son, driving between the sea of steaming junk trailers
When they reached the building, he noticed that the palaces were not Susuki.
His son shortcut.
– and sent to insurance. The parents of the boys were committed to re-send.
The other surprise was when I entered the apartment. Spotless, without the rows of old newspapers or furniture or soda cans thrown by where.
– I’m wrong house? .– Was astonished Palacios
– Clean a little. I will accompany a few days.
– And your job.
– I am unemployed. I live on social security.

At the same time Julyus was in heaven. Worked in a multidisciplinary team of computer analysis of building aerodynamics and material resistance. Was in the middle of a cyber paradise. The Tahirza 908 game would be a multipurpose clone bombing Viggo A-37. The Xixata 408 was a multipurpose cargo and passengers. It was a clone of a Hercules C-130 but a reaction. The best thing is that there was no substance in the allocation of projects. The work was very strong, but the salary and contractual benefits were excellent. Everything to-day graduation. And lived in a dizzying speed. Odalis Amelia, the lottery and his work. Only one baby was missing. I would as soon as possible. With what could be earned that Odalis convince withdraw from the cooperative and is studying economics at the University of peoples proletarians.

Rosiris makeup is bruising. Reached orgasms convulsed while nectary towards their work. Most strokes were divine and the spat. It was spectacular feel dirty. Where to locate the driver, would pay to see its end.

Priamo saw the ad in full color. The demon appeared in Jalisco Toro DANCING BLUE SNACK BAR. THE SITE WHERE THE GAME IS DROP ALL ELECTRICA rampant. Prove once more the effectiveness of their tickets. SO RESERVE THE SHOW 7:30 am via the Internet, to pay in cash at the gate. $ 2500 per ticket before the service. Asked the best table.
So after entering and once again that their bills passed the rigorous inspection of the offender to the box office, sat down and enjoyed a sip of his whiskey or blue label limited edition. When the woman came out, still in shock, absolutely and totally understood because the Spanish conquerors, when they saw the women Aztecs believed they were in paradise, because that woman was an angel from heaven. The devil was dressed only with three sunflowers. She sang running a complicated dance that leaves you breathless for men. An artist was a little beyond the maximum. In the interim he went to his dressing room to freshen your makeup, take a glass of tequila and pure accommodated with three strong lines.
– You have the driver sitting right in front of you – told nectary on their backs, after giving a gentle kiss on the beautiful shoulders.
– What a surprise!. A driver with so much money.
– You have no idea of what you have. Distráelo and take it. After I take care of the offender .– pressure
– It will be easy, “said the woman .– measuring boy with the beautiful face of a priest.
Priamo enjoyed the other part of the show and in the middle of a pass just above the woman jumped from his desk, leaned her torso and artistically covering the faces of the two with his long hair, gave him a light kiss on the mouth and said in the ear.
– I like you. Come to the pent-Meliá eighth house – the woman gave a spectacular leap in the middle of the stage and continued his show.

Hours after the pent-house Rosiris
He received a huge bouquet of pink orchids, a giant bottle of Champagne’s widow and 8 liters a gallon of perfume Poisson.
After Priamo came dressed in a white tuxedo, was cute. Pretty much the slimy and impotent men who had to bear for $ 300,000.
– This call has made me love life again – said the young man with an angelic smile seminarian.
The woman smiles. It would be about eight years her junior. It felt like a corrupting minors. He had a little wolf in sheep’s clothing. Danced, chatted on the procession as a student. The kiss with shyness and so continued for a while. Her view that no progress in their attack with your fingers explored experts.
– What is this? Is it a joke? – Worried feeling that column said.
The opening and closing it down her face ….. her god, to see what desperate whisper, to lower the power turned to oral sex but that does not fit in the mouth and grew still more. He loaded up the bed and gently placed it there. She began to tremble in his legs watching column point directly, and was in position. A guttural cry went down his spine, lie with exorbitant eyes saw the beautiful face of the young. The destroyed, the disrupted. The killing …..
The hours crawled to the bathroom with the help of the elbows. He was dying, even when very young was sold to a world champion heavyweight boxer, he felt something of this magnitude. As it could be sought to sit on the toilet. It was clean and with more force was to sink to wash her face. It looked in the mirror. Was desencajada.
I look at the door. He was there. Naked and in full force. With bright eyes he said.
– Now I want that – he said greedily watching their ass.
– No daddy – she moaned with a thread of voice, perfectly understanding the intentions of the man — no … not there.
After a shattering shriek fills the air. After a stronger and stronger after another ….

Thank you to you that I just read this. But I invite you to continue reading in the method. Chapter 2. Which is like all my work in http://myspace.com/edrapecor
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Things To Look For In A Luxury Watch

January 9, 2011 by  
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Things To Look For In A Luxury Watch


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Home Page > Shopping > Jewelry > Things To Look For In A Luxury Watch

Things To Look For In A Luxury Watch

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For $300 and up watches:

This is a broad range of watches with probably the largest selection of watches in it. For some of you $300 is a huge sum for a watch, while for others of you, this is a paltry amount barely worth your attention. If you are in the former category, you’ll want to listen up as these are important things to look for. Again, this is just one partial list, and there are of course others things that go into a good watch.
1. Sapphire Crystal

A watch crystal is the transparent cover over the face of the watch. Crystals have been made using different materials over the years, but only a few major materials dominate the market today. Most of the watch you’ll look at have one of two types of crystals; mineral glass or synthetic sapphire crystals. Mineral crystals are cheaper and offer one benefit over sapphire – they don’t tend to shatter if stuck hard. Meaning they will crack, but not shatter. Shattered sapphire crystals are relatively rare and typically occur with a harsh impact. The better the watch, the thicker the sapphire crystal will be, and thus less likely to crack. Sapphire crystals are incredibly scratch-resistant though. You often seen well-worn watches with beat up cases but a “flawless” crystal. Thus, sapphire crystals are more desirable to mineral crystals and should be preferred the majority of the time.
2. Solid Metal Construction

To some people it might be obvious to get a watch out of solid metal, but you’d be surprised at how some cheaper watches cut costs. Steel watches should be make from grade 316L stainless steel almost all the time. Plus, the watch case and bracelet links should be solid pieces of metal rather than folder metal or anything hollow. it is easy to tell a solid bracelet by looking at the side of it and noticing it if looks like one solid piece. In watches at this level, cases are best made from the fewest amount of pieces and using the most metal possible. This means the least (or no) amount of materials such as plastic or otherwise.
3. Swiss movement or Japanese Movement (if it is a Japanese watch)

Switzerland is known for making high quality watch movements – you knew that. Japan also makes good movements, but not all movements are created equally. Most of the the time Swiss movements comes from ETA, or Ronda – especially if they are quartz movements (though this is not always the case). Japanese quartz movements typically come from makers such as Seiko, Citizen, and Casio. While these countries are not the only makers of movements, at these price points try to get movements from these regions as much as possible. Plus, if a watch is not Japanese, try to find one with a Swiss movement. You generally want to stay away from Chinese movements, though this is not always a signal of low quality. Japanese watches probably utilize Japanese movements the best, though you’ll find Japanese movements (often Miyota which is part of Citizen) in timepiece from all over the world. Lastly, at this price point don’t worry too much about finding mechanical watches – you are just fine with a quartz movement – even though there are plenty of mechanical movements available.

swiss-eta-quartz-movement
4.Solid Feeling Construction

You want your watch to feel well put together and solid. Check to see how well the strap or bracelet fits to the case. There should little to no wiggle room. Put the watch on your wrist and see how well the clasp or buckle operates, they should be smooth with a nice action. They should further not feel flimsy or poorly sized. If the watch has a rotating diver’s bezel, again twist it around and see how much movement it gives in a resting position. A good watch should not make too much or any noise when shifting around briskly on your wrist, and it goes without saying that it should feel like it is all assembled in tight fitting manner. It is also the case that a lot of the time Swiss companies (even at these lower price points), make better metal bracelets than other countries even Japan. it is true that a Swiss design bracelet might actually be manufactured elsewhere, but they take great pride in refinement of these areas.
5. Designed by Actual Watch Makers

Consider that two types of people are designing watches. Those that care about how well a watch functions as a timepiece, and others that just care about how they look. The best watches are designed using fundamental watch design principles that value function AND form. The alternative are “fashion” watches that might look nice, but actually have superfluous or vestigial design cues. Worst case scenario is a watch that is so poorly design it does not even function properly. Examples of this are missing chronograph subdials, erroneous markers on dial, inoperable measuring scales just placed for show, and my all time biggest pet peeve – hands that are too short or the wrong size. The last thing you want is your nice looking watch to function like a movie prop. So do yourself a favor and really take a good long look dial and all its features figuring out what each and everything function does, along with making a decision of whether it is usable given your standards. This is one of the biggest problems in the watch market today, and you’ll be proud that you took the time to find a watch that was actually designed to be a highly functional instrument.
6. Locking Deployment Clasp if on Metal Bracelet

Cheaper watches with metal bracelets still have what is called a single locking clasp. This is the type of bracelet that literally just snaps or clicks into place. The best metal bracelets have what are know as “double or triple locking clasps.” The image below has a bracelet with a double locking clasp (deployment). The piece on the left “locks” via clicking down when it attaches to the bottom segment. That is the first “lock.” The second is the little metal flap that “locks” again over the first piece to secure it being closed. A triple lock often features a push-button in the mix, or there are also “double locking clasps” with a push button instead of a fold over flap. The bottom line is that you want a watch bracelet that will stay secure on your wrist no matter you are doing or if you accidentally hit bracelet on something.

steel-watch-bracelet-deployment
7. Weight

Watch weight is a polarizing concept. Some people (like myself) love heavy watches. Others want something very light. On more expensive watches you start to see materials such as titanium which are lighter than steel, but in this price segment weight is often times a sign of quality. Even though titanium is available at this price level, it most likely is not the higher (grade 5) quality titanium that is what you’ll want. At this price level, you are only going to get that nice crisp quality look with steel. Like I said, weight often signifies solid construction using a high quality steel. So feel the weight of a case and bracelet to make sure it is substantial enough to justify your investment.
8. Signed Crown and Buckle or Clasp

A good watch maker is more often than not a proud watch maker, and is fully invested in each watch they design. This means there are typically four places that you’ll watch to see the name of the watch makers. This is on the face of the watch, the caseback, on the crown, and on the deployment clasp or strap buckle. These are also known as “signed crowns or buckles/deployment clasps.” The manner of “signing” can vary, but at this price level are usually some type of light laser engraving. Higher priced watches have logos and graphics done relief (raised versus etched into the metal). Cheaper watches have bare crowns and deployments which make it too clear that these parts are taken from a parts bin and have no personal touch.
9. Good Dial Lumination

Not all watches are expected to have dials that illuminate in the dark for low light viewing – these are typically the more classic or formal watches. However, almost all sport and causal watches have some type of luminant that is applied on the hands as well as somewhere on the dial. The quality of luminant greatly varies. Some is so impractical that it should not even be there. An example being that you need to shine a bright light directly to the face of the watch for a minute or so, and then the dial dimly glows for a few minutes. Alternatively you have luminant that charges easily with exposed room or sun light and glows for hours. The Japanese tend to make the best luminant, but you get get Japanese luminant watches from all over (watches will never indicate the source of the luminant, but look for LumiNova, or better yet SuperLumiNova is possible). An alternative to luminant are watches that use tritium gas tubes. These tubes are made by just one company in Switzerland and glow by themselves for about 25-30 years. Tritium gas tubes are not tough to find as a few watch brands almost exclusively use them and can be had for reasonable prices. Still, most watches will have applied luminant. Look for large surface areas of luminant that is applied richly (looks raised up a bit).

10. Consistent Pricing

One figure attached to new watches that doesn’t tend to mean a lot is the retail price. Why? Because you are a sucker for ever paying retail price most of the time. After those of you from the watch companies stop cursing me, let me explain a bit. Retail prices are just number set so that even authorized retailers can show to the consumer that they are giving you a discount. It is true that some watches are discounted only a bit or not at all, but the vast majority of watches, especially at these prices levels, are sold below retail prices. That is good to know, but not my final point. Due to the fact that prices are often below retail, you want to pay the “actual,” consistent street price. Let’s say for example a watch has a retail price of $500, but most retailers actually sell it for $400. You want to make sure you shop around to pay $400 as opposed to $450. Here is the kicker though when it comes to assessing value of an entry level luxury watch. If a watch is being sold by authorized dealers for $400, but the unauthorized dealers (everyone else) is charging $250, then you know there is something wrong with the value of the watch. This is what I call “inconsistent pricing.” What you want to look for is consistency among retailers so that prices don’t vary wildly from seller to seller.

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Importance Of Chemiluminescence And Bioluminescence

January 5, 2011 by  
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Importance Of Chemiluminescence And Bioluminescence


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Home Page > Education > Importance Of Chemiluminescence And Bioluminescence

Importance Of Chemiluminescence And Bioluminescence

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Though light is a form of energy, to create light, another form of energy must be supplied for which there are two common ways to occur: incandescence and luminescence. Incandescence is light from heat energy that is from hot objects. If we heat something to a high enough temperature, it will begin to glow. For example, when an electric stove’s heater or metal in a flame begins to glow “red hot”, they exhibit incandescence. Similarly when the tungsten filament of an ordinary incandescent light bulb is heated still hotter, it glows brightly “white hot” by the same means. So much so the sun and stars glow by incandescence.

Contrary to incandescence, luminescence is “cold light” that can be emitted at normal and lower temperatures. In luminescence, some energy source kicks an electron of an atom out of its lowest energy “ground” state into a higher energy “excited” state; then the electron returns the energy in the form of light so it can fall back to its “ground” state. With few exceptions, the excitation energy is always greater than the energy (wavelength, color) of the emitted light.

If we lift a rock, our muscles will be supplying energy to raise the rock to a higher-energy position. If we then drop the rock, the energy we supply is released, of course, some of it in the form of sound, as it drops back to its original low-energy position. With electrical attraction replacing gravity, the atomic nucleus replacing the earth, an electron replacing the rock, and light replacing the sound, it is somewhat the same that happens with luminescence. There are several varieties of luminescence, each named according to the source of energy, or the trigger for the luminescence:

Fluorescence and Photoluminescence are luminescence where the energy is supplied by electromagnetic radiation (rays such as light). Photoluminescence is generally taken to mean “luminescence from any electromagnetic radiation”, while fluorescence is often used only for luminescence caused by ultraviolet, although it may also be used for other photoluminescences. Fluorescence is seen in fluorescent lights, amusement park and movie special effects, the redness of rubies in sunlight, “day-glo” or “neon” colors, and in emission nebulae seen with telescopes in the night sky. Bleaches enhance their whitening power with a white fluorescent material.

Photoluminescence should not be confused with reflection, refraction, or scattering of light, which cause most of the colors we see in daylight or bright artificial lighting. Photoluminescence is distinguished in that the light is absorbed for a significant time, and generally produces light of a frequency that is lower than, but otherwise independent of, the frequency of the absorbed light.

Chemiluminescence is luminescence where the energy is supplied by chemical reactions. The ‘glow-in-the-dark’ plastic tubes used or sold in amusement parks are examples of chemiluminescence. Bioluminescence is luminescence caused by chemical reactions in living things; it is a form of chemiluminescence. Fireflies glow by bioluminescence. Electroluminescence is luminescence caused by electric current. Cathodoluminescence is electroluminescence caused by electron beams; this is how television pictures are formed on a CRT (Cathode Ray Tube). Other examples of electroluminescence are neon lights, the auroras, and lightning flashes. This should not be mistaken for what occurs with the ordinary incandescent electric lights, in which the electricity is used to produce heat, and it is the heat that in turn produces light.

Radioluminescence is luminescence caused by nuclear radiation. Older ‘glow-in-the-dark’ clock dials often used paint with a radioactive material (typically a radium compound) and a radioluminescent material. The term may be used to refer to luminescence caused by X-rays, also called photoluminescence. Phosphorescence is delayed luminescence or “afterglow”. When an electron is kicked into a high-energy state, it may get trapped there for some time (as if we lifted that rock, then set it on a table). In some cases, the electrons escape the trap in time; in other cases they remain trapped until some trigger gets them unstuck (like the rock will remain on the table until something bumps it). Many glow-in-the-dark products, especially toys for children, involve substances that receive energy from light, and emit the energy again as light later.

Triboluminescence is phosphorescence that is triggered by mechanical action or electroluminescence excited by electricity generated by mechanical action. Some minerals glow when hit or scratched, as we can see by banging two quartz pebbles together in the dark. The visible light emitted is often a secondary fluorescence effect, from electroluminescence in the ultraviolet. Thermoluminescence is phosphorescence triggered by temperatures above a certain threshold. This should not be confused with incandescence, which occurs at higher temperatures. In thermoluminescence, heat is not the primary source of the energy; it is rather only the trigger for the release of energy that originally came from another source. It may be that all phosphorescences have a minimum temperature, but many have a minimum triggering temperature below normal temperatures and are not normally thought of as thermoluminescences. Optically stimulated luminescence is phosphorescence triggered by visible light or infrared. In this case red or infrared light is only a trigger for release of previously stored energy.

When two molecules react chemically so that there is a release of energy, that energy sometimes manifests itself not as heat but as light. This occurs because the energy excites the product molecules into which it has been funneled. A molecule in this excited state either relaxes to the ground state, with the direct emission of light, or transfers its energy to a second molecule, which becomes the light emitter. This process is referred to as chemiluminescence. The originally green, now multicolored, commercially made “light sticks” (often in the form of bracelets and necklaces) work in this way, utilizing the (exothermic) reaction of hydrogen peroxide with an oxalate ester. This oxidation reaction produces two molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2), and the released energy is transferred to a fluorescent dye molecule, usually an anthracene derivative. Light sticks were developed by the U.S. Navy as an inconspicuous and easily shielded illumination tool for special operations forces dropped behind enemy lines. Besides their use as children’s toys, they are also used extensively as a navigation aid by divers searching in muddy water. The light sticks glow as a result of the energy released by a chemical reaction.

Chemiluminescence is also found in fireflies. The male firefly uses the reaction of a luciferin substrate and the enzyme luciferase with oxygen, with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an energy source, to create the illumination it uses to attract a mate. Because the detection of very minute amounts of light is possible, chemiluminescence and bioluminescence have become the basis of many sensitive analytical and bioanalytical techniques or assays used to quantify particular compounds in samples. Indeed, the use of these techniques is broad enough to justify the existence of a journal devoted to them, the Journal of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence.

In 1669 Hennig Brand, a German alchemist, was attempting to recover, by means of intense heat, the gold he hoped was lurking in human urine. The waxy white substance that he did retrieve, which glowed green when exposed to air, was in fact elemental phosphorus. The emission of light observed by Brand was actually chemiluminescence. The light arises from PO2 molecules in an excited state. This excited state of PO2 is brought about by the reaction between PO and ozone, which are both intermediates in the fundamental reaction between oxygen in air and P4 vapor evaporating from the solid white phosphorus. It is unfortunate that the chemiluminescent glow of phosphorus gave rise to the term “phosphorescence.” Scientifically, phosphorescence is a process whereby absorbed photons are emitted at a later time, as exemplified by the glow of a watch face in the dark after its earlier exposure to light.

Luminol (3-aminophthalhydrazide) is used in a commercially available portable device called the Luminox that measures minute concentrations (parts per billion) of the pollutant nitrogen dioxide in air. Luminol is also used frequently in laboratory demonstrations of the chemiluminescence phenomenon. Luminol-mediated chemiluminescence is the result of an oxidation reaction. The oxidation proceeds in two steps, which ultimately lead to the production of the aminophthalate anion in an excited state and the elimination of water and molecular nitrogen. The formation of the strong triple bond (N≡N) is a major factor in the release of energy in the form of light. Probably the simplest chemiluminescent reaction (and one that has been studied extensively) is the reaction between nitric oxide, NO, and ozone, O3. The reaction (with about 10% efficiency) yields nitrogen dioxide in an excited state (NO2*)

NO + O3 = NO2* + O2 and NO2* = NO2 + h ν

This reaction was developed in the early 1970s as a specific and instantaneous method to detect nitric oxide in the exhaust of automobiles. This use of chemiluminescence rapidly led to application of the same phenomenon to monitor the presence of NO in the atmosphere. Both applications continue in use even today. Ozone can easily be produced by passing dry air or oxygen through an electric discharge. The ozone-containing stream and the sample to be evaluated are mixed in a dark chamber adjacent to a photomultiplier tube, and the chemiluminescence signal that is produced is amplified. These devices are capable of monitoring NO levels ranging from parts per trillion to thousands of parts per million; an individual instrument can sometimes measure concentrations extending across six orders of magnitude.

The familiar yellow glow from a natural gas or wood-burning flame is not the result of chemiluminescence, but is due to bright, red-hot particles of carbon soot. The blue, green, and other colors produced when metals are put into flame can indeed be ascribed to chemiluminescence; in these instances the luminescence is accompanied by heat production. It has been found that more than 90 percent of organisms living in the oceans at depths from 200 to 1,000 meters use chemiluminescence for activities such as attracting prey and avoiding predators. Light from the sky is quite weak at those depths; a fish that emits a dim glow from its lower parts could become invisible from below, while a fish without this capability would appear as a dark shadow.

Bioluminescence is the emission of visible light by biological systems, which arises from enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions. Bioluminescence can be distinguished from chemiluminescence in that it occurs in living organisms and requires an enzyme catalyst. These chemical-dependent emissions of light differ from fluorescence and phosphorescence, which involve the absorption of light by a compound followed by emission of light at a lower energy (higher wavelength) from the excited state of the molecule. The excited molecule produced during bioluminescence reactions, however, is analogous to that produced during fluorescence, and consequently the luminescence emission spectrum can often be related to the fluorescence emission spectrum. It should also be noted that the processes of fluorescence and phosphorescence also occur in living organisms and should not be confused with bioluminescence. The jellyfish is among many bioluminescent species.

Bioluminescence has been observed in many organisms and phyla throughout the terrestrial and aquatic worlds, with the majority of luminescent organisms being found in the ocean. Because of the ease with which light can be detected, recorded observations of bioluminescence extend back several thousand years. Both the ancient Chinese and the ancient Greeks recorded luminescence sightings. Aristotle, in the fourth century B.C.E., wrote that “some things, though they are not in their nature fire, nor any species of fire, yet seem to produce light.”

Luminescent species are found among marine and terrestrial bacteria, annelids or segmented worms, beetles, algae, crustaceans, mollusks, coelenterates, bony fish, and cartilaginous fish. Luminescent vertebrates (except for certain fish), mammals, higher plants, and viruses do not exist—except for those versions created by recombinant technology. Most, if not all, bioluminescence reactions have oxygen as a common reactant and a conjugated system as part of one of the substrates—both needed to generate molecules in an excited state, leading to the emission of light in the visible region. However, the bioluminescence reactions in some organisms are quite different from those in other organisms, and consequently the enzymes catalyzing the reactions (luciferases) and the substrates (often but not always referred to as luciferins) are also quite distinct. Four bioluminescence systems (fireflies, dinoflagellates, bacteria, and imidazolopyrazine-based e. g., coelenterates) have been studied in greatest detail, and their chemical reactions reflect both their differences and their common features.

Luciferases from click beetles, fireflies, and railway worms catalyze the ATP-dependent decarboxylation of luciferin. An AMP derivative of luciferin is formed, which subsequently reacts with O2. Cleavage of this dioxy derivative results in the emission of light characterized by wavelengths ranging from 550 nanometers ( green) to 630 nanometers (red, depending on the particular luciferase), and the release of CO2. Fireflies generally emit in the yellow to green range, as part of a courtship process; click beetles emit green to orange light; whereas railway worms emit red light, with green light being emitted on movement.

Much of the brightness that is observed on the surface of the oceans is due to the bioluminescence of certain species of dinoflagellates, or unicellular algae, and this bioluminescence accounts for many of the recorded observations that have described the apparent “phosphorescence” of the sea. Dinoflagellates are very sensitive to motion induced by ships or fish, and respond with rapid and brilliant flashes, thus causing the glow that is sometimes seen in the wake of a ship. The luciferin in these instances is a tetrapyrrole containing four five-member rings of one nitrogen and four carbons, and its oxidation, catalyzed by dinoflagellate luciferase, results in blue-green light centered at about 470 nanometers.

Bacterial luciferase catalyzes the reaction of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) with O2 to form a 4a-peroxyflavin derivative that reacts with a long chain aldehyde leading to the emission of blue-green light (490 nanometers) and the formation of riboflavin phosphate (FMN; the phosphorylated form of vitamin B2), H2O, and the corresponding fatty acid. Luminescent bacteria are found throughout the marine environment, living free, in symbiosis, or in the gut of marine organisms (including many fish and squid), as well as in the terrestrial environment as symbionts of nematodes.

The luciferins believed to be the most widespread among phyla living in the ocean have structures based on imidazolopyrazine, for example, coelenterazine, found in luminescent coelenterates contains imidazolopyrazine as its central bicyclic ring. The typical reaction involves the oxidation of the imidazolopyrazine ring with the emission of blue light (460–480 nanometers), and proceeds according to a mechanism that is very similar to that of the oxidation of firefly luciferin. Among the most commonly studied imidazolopyrazine-utilizing organisms are species of Renilla (sea pansy) and Aequorea (jellyfish) both of which utilize coelenterazine. The luciferin of a crustacean (Cypridina or Vargula) also is an imidazolopyrazine-based compound related to coelenterazine. The luciferases of the luminescent species, however, vary widely. Recent evidence suggests that some, and possibly many, marine luminescent organisms (including the jellyfish) acquire luciferins via the ingestion of other luminescent organisms, which would account for the widespread distribution of imidazolopyrazine-based luciferins. Many luminescent species also have a binding protein that releases the luciferin upon Ca2+ uptake, while some have a fluorescence protein that absorbs and then emits light at a higher wavelength.

Although other luminescent systems have been studied (including those of the fireworm and the limpet, both of which use aldehydes as luciferins), bioluminescence remains somewhat mysterious. Elucidation of the chemical and biological bases for luminescence systems in other organisms should improve understanding of why the remarkable and beautiful phenomenon of bioluminescence appears in so many species.

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Dr. Badruddin Khan teaches Chemistry in the University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India.

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Seeking Conception: Experiences Of Urban Indian Women With In Vitro Fertilisation

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Seeking Conception: Experiences Of Urban Indian Women With In Vitro Fertilisation


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Home Page > Home and Family > Pregnancy > Seeking Conception: Experiences Of Urban Indian Women With In Vitro Fertilisation

Seeking Conception: Experiences Of Urban Indian Women With In Vitro Fertilisation

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In Indian society fertility defines womanhood and motherhood, and infertility is stigmatised. Women faced a lot of pressures to produce a biological child, and go through all kinds of treatments, including the advanced reproductive technologies like IVF,ART, GIFT, ZIFT, TET, ICSI,IMSI,donor egg,surrogacy services to have a child.

Infertility is considered a curse for women, especially in India where the female partner is blamed in almost all cases.

Urban lifestyle has left its mark in all the aspects of health, but none has been as overlooked as Fertility Issues. Perhaps this is because fertility is the last thing on the minds of an average working couple juggling family life, demanding workplace deadlines and ever tight finances. Between managing the professional & personal commitments, reproductive health is left unattended, especially as the effects of a poor reproductive health are not alarming or incapacitating. More and more cases are diagnosed at a stage when fertility becomes a pressing issue due to social or family pressures.

In India, it is estimated that approximately between 15-20% of all couples of fertile age suffer from infertility. This figure is on the increase because of increased urbanization and pollution, stress, a competitive work environment and a hectic and fast paced lifestyle. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 8-10% of couples experience some form of infertility problem. On a worldwide scale, this means that 50-80 million people suffer from infertility.
However, the incidence of infertility may vary from region to region.

Due to the professional commitments and the cut throat competition in the dwindling job market most of the men and especially women are delaying their marriage and the reproductive events. It does not affect the men so much, as the sperm production is an ongoing process and continues well in old age though in decreased quantity and quality. For a woman, it’s an age related event as they are born with a finite number of eggs which are lost at regular interval every month, beginning at puberty. The plateau is reached at the approximate age of 35 years and it has been shown that around 37 years of age there’s a sharp decline in the number of eggs, finally reaching a point where fertility potentials are exhausted. This is when the menopause is achieved. The other factors which adversely affect a woman’s fertility are the increase in incidence of miscarriage, deteriorating egg quality and complications of pregnancy in an advanced age. Medical wisdom dictates that women should finish having babies by the time they are in early thirties, after which fertility levels begin to drop. After 35 years she is on the wrong side of the biological clock and she is faced with difficulties as well as complications. This age group’s response to fertility treatments is also sub- optimal. The ovarian response is poor and they sometime have problems carrying  the pregnancy to term.

Many of these urban men and women, who face fertility impairment, are from the group of highly motivated go-getters. It’s a classic case of mouse replacing the spouse. There are couples who request for insemination, simply because they have no time to plan a natural conception, what with long work hours, night shifts and frequent out- station travel. The employees working in nocturnal shifts also suffer from hormonal disturbances caused by changing sleep rhythms and bio-cycles. Hormonal disturbances in women lead to disturbed egg release and ovulation. Similarly, lifestyle of men is affected by, late hours, unhealthy eating habits, routine consumption of alcohol and smoking and finally high stressed life.

The problem originates as early as in childhood when eating habits are developed. The concept of healthy eating is impressed upon few kids in schools or at homes. As a result the incidence of obesity is on the rise in urban Indian population. These unhealthy eating practices of fried food, oily meals overcooked vegetables and little or no physical exercise is carried on to adolescent and adulthood, where it rears its ugly head in the form of health problems, which later translate to impaired fertility. The weight gain, along with genetic factors, leads to disturbed hormonal milieu which leads to irregular periods and anovulation. This can present as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Generally this can be improved to help the woman conceive by lifestyle modification, diet planning and weight reduction. We definitely do not advocate a size zero, but as less as 5% weight loss, achieved scientifically, help to improve the response of the ovaries.

On the other end of the spectrum is the newer phenomenon of crash dieting and distorted body image in teenagers. This is definitely an influence from the west, more common especially in the metropolitan cities. The incidence of anorexia nervosa is more common now than we would imagine. This is due to unreasonable expectations from one’s body and an unhealthy competition amongst the peer groups. The effects of this type of life style can cause a serious imbalance in the fertility hormones in the body, especially girls, leading to absence of menses, severe anemia and renal disorders. The condition needs medical as well as psychological attention. Obsession with the body image has to be improved upon gradually, by boosting the confidence levels and family support systems..

Excess of anything can be bad. So while we do advice exercise to keep the body healthy, too much of athletics can have its effects. Over enthusiastic athletic activity can also send signal to the brain and decrease the outflow of fertility hormones. This is very commonly seen in female athletes and affects their future fertility. The new fad of body building that has caught the imagination of Indian youth has been fuelled by the recent attempts of the movie personalities to build a perfect body, in the shortest of time possible. While on this pursuit, they get into the consumption of protein and health shakes and hormone supplements. Some of the constituents of these supposedly health supplements actually signal the brain to reduce the production of male & female hormones and in turn lead to fertility problems.

Environmental toxins, finally recognized as health hazards, are an offshoot of urbanization. Adulteration, pollutants, additives and dyes used in the food stuff as well as toys are another factor which has become an important variant in the health care of developing countries. Lot of the coastal areas have been identified as having a high mercury level in their sea food. This in turn has been related to the high incidence of sperm abnormalities and ovulation problems. People working in the chemical industry, in contact with paints fumes, dyes etc have also been found to have a lower sperm count.
Endometriosis is another condition which till a couple of decades back was supposedly a western problem. Now with urbanization, and adaptation of western lifestyles, we have also inherited their diseases. Endometriosis is seen quite commonly in young women today. It is a condition where the lining of the uterus is present in other places outside the uterus usually on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and ligaments that support the uterus; the area between the vagina and the rectum; the outer surface of the uterus; the lining of the pelvic cavity; the bladder, bowel, vagina, cervix, vulva, and in abdominal surgical scars. In sync with the menstrual cycle, this tissue builds up, breaks down, and sheds each month; but unfortunately, it has no way of leaving the body. As a result it causes internal bleeding, breakdown of blood and tissue from the lesions, and most often inflammation which can cause pain, infertility, scar tissue formation, ovarian cysts, adhesions and bowel problems. There is no way to cure it completely, though GnRH agonist injections can suppress the growth to an extent and then surgical removal can be attempted if required. On a brighter note, pregnancy seems to dissuade this growth of tissue in aberrant places.

Lifestyle modification to tackle obesity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, have been proposed as crucial in influencing the outcome of both natural and assisted conceptions.

1]Occasional relaxing get-away for the couple
2]Cut down on alcohol intake
3]Stop tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption
4]Avoid processed food, preservatives etc.
5]Organic food, sea food judicious selection
6]Stop diet/ binge cycle
7]Make space for some form of physical exercise in the week
8]Regular health checks
9]Plan  family before 35 years of age
10]Pre- natal vitamins/ anti-oxidants
11]Weight loss if high BMI
12]Ovulation induction for anovulatory women with patent tubes
13]IUI to counter some of the cervical, semen and Ovulatory factors
14]IVF/ICSI for damaged /blocked tubes, asthenozoospermia/azoospermia, unexplained infertility
15]Minimally Invasive Fertility surgery for fibroids, polyps, ovarian cysts etc.

Lifestyle modification should be the preferred initial treatment of infertility.

If you are still having problems after applying these fertility tips for women, and want more detailed information that can help then contact for knowing more about IVF Fertility infertility specialist,fertility centres that can provide the best affordable quality infertility,fertility treatments with advanced reproductive technologies like IVF,ART, GIFT, ZIFT, TET, ICSI,IMSI,donor egg,surrogacy services at Morpheus ART Fertility Centers.

Contact Us For More details:

Morpheus Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd.,
Tel: 91 22 42030903
Fax: 91 22 42030901

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Morpheus ART is a German Indian Medical Joint Venture Company setting up India’s first ever organized chain of Fertility Centers in leading cities of the country.

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http://www.morpheus-art.com
[email protected]

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Hi, I am a indian women and last few nights i am always dreaming of snakes. one night black cobra, another night 2 yellow snakes covered with flowers and i am praying to it. a few months ago, why?
What should be the Indian dress code for women speakers in India?
Sir,why women participation in indian stock market is less as compaired to men

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Morpheus ART is a German Indian Medical Joint Venture Company setting up India’s first ever organized chain of Fertility Centers in leading cities of the country.

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[email protected]

Cool Gift Baskets For Children

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Cool Gift Baskets For Children


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Home Page > Home and Family > Parenting > Cool Gift Baskets For Children

Cool Gift Baskets For Children

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Have you ever attended a birthday party and witnessed an embarrassing scene in which a child, upon opening a gift, throws a temper tantrum because he or she did not like the gift? Or what if you realized that you and another guest had both given the exact same gift to the celebrant? If you want to avoid these typical examples of embarrassing scenes in the future, then you may want to start thinking about more unique gift ideas the next time another child’s birthday comes up.

Gift packages are very special presents that you can give to any child-boy or girl. These are thoughtful and wonderful gifts that they can use and enjoy long after the party is over, increasing the practical value of your purchase. Children will love receiving these gifts, especially those that they think are fun to use and share with friends. On the other hand, parents will love you for giving these gifts because you give them unique ideas with which they can spend quality time with their kids through items that actually cost some money to purchase.

In the past, when one hears the term “gift basket,” we all automatically think of corporate giveaways that aren’t unique in any way. Nowadays, however, given that the demand for such gifts has become more and more complex, sellers have actually begun to offer gift packages that no longer fit our old notions of what kinds of gifts these baskets are. Today, they do not come in just any old baskets anymore-any container can be used. You can actually fill these up with any combination of items that you personally think should be included, and then have the entire gift wrapped up in a nice little package that could look classy and elegant, or fun and vibrant depending on the recipient.

Furthermore, these ultimate gifts are really fun because they are versatile and offer unlimited options. You can choose from various combinations or themes so that you do not have to be restricted to giving just a single gift and end up giving the wrong one. If you do not have any idea as to which type of basket you can give to children as gifts, allow us to share with you some brilliant and popular gifting ideas.

Suggestion #1 The Arts and Crafts Basket

The ideal gifts for children are those that are educational, can enhance their skills, and can teach them positive values such as creativity, diligence, and patience. Most importantly, these gifts should be fun and be able to allow the children to share the experience with others. This is where the arts and crafts basket comes in. This type of gift pulls together supplies and materials such as colors, paints, brushes, pencils, paper, posters, activity books, markers, and other implements that can be used to create art. Other baskets also include specific items required for particular crafts such as knitting and crocheting, stamp collecting and clay molding, among many others. When given as gifts, these baskets present children with so many opportunities to explore their creativity and expose them to the world of art.

Suggestion #2 A Basket for Budding Chefs

Aside from arts and crafts, another fun activity for children is that involving food, especially its preparation. In fact, so many parenting books suggest that parents must involve their children in preparing the food served on the dining table so that they can appreciate what they eat and the efforts involved in preparing the food. In this way, kids will be better able to appreciate the value of food and realize that they should not waste anything on their plates. As parents prepare the dishes with their children, they can also teach the kids about healthy eating, the environment, and other social and cultural issues regarding food. Of course, the end result will always be a yummy treat the kids will be proud of. All thanks to your wonderful gift idea!

Suggestion #3 The Movie Freak’s Basket

What could be more fun than watching your favorite movie or musical with friends or family members? Watching movies is well-loved activity in almost all households. Given that most kids nowadays have shown a preference for these, you can never actually go wrong with movie-themed baskets. There are actually tons of movies and musicals that you can choose from-all kid-friendly and non-violent in any way. Companies such as Walt Disney and Nickelodeon, among others, have produced movies and TV shows that share positive messages and are absolutely fun to watch!! Throw in a bunch of these DVDs, a few bags of high-quality popcorn kernels, chips, and dips into a large durable bowl and you have the makings of a fun movie marathon activity that the recipients can share with friends and family members.

Suggestion #4 The Little Scientist’s Basket

When you ask kids about what kinds of games they most love to play, chances are most of them would say that they love to pretend like adults and play role-playing games. What if you took this childhood fascination and transformed it to an activity that is educational and fun at the same time? That is what you can do with this type of gift basket. This is the ideal gift for little scientists and precocious children who usually have lots of questions and are forever doing little experiments at home. Such a basket may include a magnifying glass, small magnets, plastic test tubes, food-grade liquids of every color, a pretend burner, and a few other scientific stuff they can play with. This gift guarantees hours of experimental fun!

Now that we have given you a few ideas as to what you can accomplish with these gifts, we encourage you to experiment with various combinations and themes. When buying any of these theme baskets, or even if you choose to create one, always keep in mind if the recipient will be able to appreciate your gift. Do a bit of research and ask the parents or the kids themselves. More importantly, all the materials included in the basket should be non-toxic and safe for kids.

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Nathan Pierce
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For more information on gift baskets for kids, go to http://www.onesourcegiftbaskets.com/ today.

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What are some good mothers day gift ideas ?
I have a cooling system leak on a 1999 ford escort any ideas where it would leak out after 1 day?
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Advantages Of Social Media

December 26, 2010 by  
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Advantages Of Social Media


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Advantages Of Social Media

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Advantages of social media

Social media is designed for social interaction. Mainly social media uses Internet and web based technologies. It transfers information and knowledge from one place to other and one person to another person, one or many. It connects people around the world they can, Share their pictures, video, thinking and their thoughts and can show whole world.

Types

Blogs: news, shopping, corporate etc

Face book.

You tube

Advantages of social media

• Interaction and connection.

Social means connection between people.  Social media is about rising relation and conversation between people. E.g. face book, orkut, etc are some sites which connect people around the world. It improve there relation. Through these sites they come to know about new things, there culture, festivals etc and about other country or state. From these sites people of all culture and religion come together as well as there thinking. So from social media people come together.

• show your passion and personality:

Joining such sites one can flourish his creativity. One can show his talent, his passion, his likes, dislikes and they can be seen everyone all around the world. You can make your own identity which will be different from others and everyone will know you. People do advertisement of there product or there things. Social sites are seen by everyone so people can use it for buy and promote there things.

Community sharing:

Now days, specific community also make there own sites so that people who are from there religion or community can know more about there religion, rituals, there history etc. Also who want to develop there knowledge or interested knowing one community they can join such sites and become member. One whole age group make there own community in which they show there activities. Like for the kids they want to gain educational or study material so they click on to such sites e.g. wekipedia. Teenager’s like’s songs, movies so they click on you tube. For religious people there many religious sites are also available.

• Government and organization:

Through these sites you can gain knowledge about different countries. There political issues, there government policies, rules and regulation. By these social networking sites government keep themselves connected to other countries. They always keep in touch with very current event happening all around the world.

Faster massage:

Social media shares information around the world. It takes hour for cannels to announce the news; news paper takes its own time. But social media not only give information about the topic but also show images, videos etc. so people love watching thing fast and first. Social media provide all these facilities at a one time. Because of photo and video, news become more exciting, this catches the attention of people.  People join such social sites more and more. And these sites blooms up people knowledge also.

Global trust and faith:

As social media it bring real people, there real thought and there real relationships with others, so everyone have to believe and trust on each other. So it develops love and trust between people around the world. If people will not trust on other person it will be all fake and fatal, which will be led to no human value.

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Facets of Web3.0

December 24, 2010 by  
Filed under Movie World USA

Facets of Web3.0


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Home Page > Internet > Facets of Web3.0

Facets of Web3.0

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Facets of Web 3.0-

A Boon for Netizens

B.MAHESHWARI

Abstract

With more than 10 years’ work on the Semantic Web’s foundations and more than five years since the phrase became popular, it’s an opportune moment to look at the field’s current state and future opportunities. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Web Ontology Language (OWL)–the languages that power the Semantic Web–have become standards and new technologies are reaching maturity for embedding semantics in existing Web pages and querying RDF knowledge stores. Something exciting is clearly happening in this area. That is none other than web 3.0

• Web 3.0 is defined as the creation of high-quality content and services produced by gifted individuals using Web 2.0 technology as an enabling platform.

Before this people were very curious about ‘Web 3.0’ as they asked to Tim Berner about the full-fledged information of Web 3.0 as Tim Berners-Lee stated in May 2006:

“People keep asking what Web 3.0 is. I think maybe when you’ve got an overlay of scalable vector graphics – everything rippling and folding and looking misty – on Web 2.0 and access to a semantic Web integrated across a huge space of data, you’ll have access to an unbelievable data resource.”- Tim Berners Lee

Web 2.0 services are now the commoditized platform, not the final product. In a world where a social network, wiki, or social bookmarking service can be built for free and in an instant, what’s next?

Web 2.0 services like digg and YouTube evolve into Web 3.0 services with an additional layer of individual excellence and focus. As an example, funnyordie.com leverages all the standard YouTube Web 2.0 feature sets like syndication and social networking, while adding a layer of talent and trust to them.

A version of digg where experts check the validity of claims, corrected errors, and restated headlines to be more accurate would be the Web 3.0 version. However, I’m not sure if the digg community will embrace that any time soon.

Wikipedia, considered a Web 1.5 service, is experiencing the start of the Web 3.0 movement by locking pages down as they reach completion, and (at least in their German version) requiring edits to flow through trusted experts.

Also of note, is what Web 3.0 leaves behind? Web 3.0 throttles the “wisdom of the crowds” from turning into the “madness of the mobs” we’ve seen all too often, by balancing it with a respect of experts. Web 3.0 leaves behind the cowardly anonymous contributors and the selfish blackhat SEOs that have polluted and diminished so many communities.

Web 3.0 is a return to what was great about media and technology before Web 2.0: recognizing talent and expertise, the ownership of ones words, and fairness. It’s time to evolve, shall we?

Basic Web 3.0 Concepts

Knowledge domains

A knowledge domain is something like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Politics, the Web, Sociology, Psychology, History, etc. There can be many sub-domains under each domain each having their own sub-domains and so on.

Information vs. Knowledge

To a machine, knowledge is comprehended information (aka new information produced through the application of deductive reasoning to exiting information). To a machine, information is only data, until it is processed and comprehended.

Ontologies

For each domain of human knowledge, an ontology must be constructed, partly by hand [or rather by brain] and partly with the aid of automation tools.

Ontologies are not knowledge nor are they information. They are meta-information. In other words, ontologies are information about information. In the context of the Semantic Web, they encode, using an ontology language, the relationships between the various terms within the information. Those relationships, which may be thought of as the axioms (basic assumptions), together with the rules governing the inference process, both enable as well as constrain the interpretation (and well-formed use) of those terms by the Info Agents to reason new conclusions based on existing information, i.e. to think. In other words, theorems (formal deductive propositions that are provable based on the axioms and the rules of inference) may be generated by the software, thus allowing formal deductive reasoning at the machine level. And given that an ontology, as described here, is a statement of Logic Theory, two or more independent Info Agents processing the same domain-specific ontology will be able to collaborate and deduce an answer to a query, without being driven by the same software.

Inference Engines

In the context of Web 3.0, Inference engines will be combining the latest innovations from the artificial intelligence (AI) field together with domain-specific ontologies (created as formal or informal ontologies by, say, Wikipedia, as well as others), domain inference rules, and query structures to enable deductive reasoning on the machine level.

Info Agents

Info Agents are instances of an Inference Engine, each working with a domain-specific ontology. Two or more agents working with a shared ontology may collaborate to deduce answers to questions. Such collaborating agents may be based on differently designed Inference Engines and they would still be able to collaborate.

Proofs and Answers

The interesting thing about Info Agents that I did not clarify in the original post is that they will be capable of not only deducing answers from existing information (i.e. generating new information [and gaining knowledge in the process, for those agents with a learning function]) but they will also be able to formally test propositions (represented in some query logic) that are made directly or implied by the user. For example, instead of the example I gave previously (in the Wikipedia 3.0 article) where the user asks “Where is the nearest restaurant that serves Italian cuisine” and the machine deduces that a pizza restaurant serves Italian cuisine, the user may ask “Is the moon blue?” or say that the “moon is blue” to get a true or false answer from the machine. In this case, a simple Info Agent may answer with “No” but a more sophisticated one may say “the moon is not blue but some humans are fond of saying ‘once in a blue moon’ which seems illogical to me.”

This test-of-truth feature assumes the use of an ontology language (as a formal logic system) and an ontology where all propositions (or formal statements) that can be made can be computed (i.e. proved true or false) and were all such computations are decidable in finite time. The language may be OWL-DL or any language that, together with the ontology in question, satisfy the completeness and decidability conditions.

“The Future Has Arrived But It’s Not Evenly Distributed”

Currently, Semantic Web (aka Web 3.0) researchers are working out the technology and human resource issues and folks like Tim Berners-Lee, the Noble prize recipient and father of the Web, are battling critics and enlightening minds about the coming human-machine revolution.

The Semantic Web (aka Web 3.0) has already arrived, and Inference Engines are working with prototypical ontologies, but this effort is a massive one, which is why I was suggesting that its most likely enabler will be a social, collaborative movement such as Wikipedia, which has the human resources (in the form of the thousands of knowledgeable volunteers) to help create the ontologies (most likely as informal ontologies based on semantic annotations) that, when combined with inference rules for each domain of knowledge and the query structures for the particular schema, enable deductive reasoning at the machine level.

Definitions and Roadmap

There are several definitions of the web, but usually Web 3.0 is defined as a term, which has been coined with different meanings to describe the evolution of web usage and interaction among the several separate paths.

These include transforming the Web into a database, a move towards making content accessible by multiple non-browser applications, the leveraging of artificial intelligence technologies, the Semantic web, or the Geospatial Web. According to Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia, “Web 3.0 is a third generation of Internet based Web services, which emphasize m a c h i n e – f a c i l i t a t e d understanding of information in order to provide a more productive and intuitive user experience.”. The third generation of Internet services is collectively consists of semantic web, microformats, natural language search, data-mining, machine learning, recommendation agents that is known as Artificial Intelligence technologies or Intelligent Web.

According to some experts, “Web 3.0 is characterized and fueled by the successful carriage of artificial intelligence and the web”. While some experts have summarized the definition defining as “Web 3.0 is the next step in the progression of the tubes that are the Internets”.

According to Nova Spivack, the CEO of Radar Networks, one of the leading voices of this new age Internet, “Web 3.0 is a set of standards that turns the Web into one big database.”

Steve, a famous Blog author has defined the term Web 3.0 as, “ Web 3.0 is highly specialized information structures, moderated by a group of personality, validated by the community, and put into context with the inclusion of meta-data through widgets”. While Leiki, the Finland based pioneer company of Semantic Web describes: “Web 3.0 makes the discovery of content streams effortless. It introduces automatic discovery of likeminded users and automatic tagging.”

The term ‘Web 3.0’ was first coined by John Markoff of the New York Times in 2006, while it first appeared prominently in early 2006 in a Blog article written by Jeffrey Zeldman in the “Critical of Web 2.0 and associated technologies such as Ajax”.

A ‘more revolutionary’ Web

The term Web 3.0 has became a subject of interest and debate since late 2006 to till date. But no exact definition has been created that everyone accepts it.

Web 3.0 Debates over Definition

Since the origins of the concept of Web 3.0, the debate continues goes on about exactly what the term Web 3.0 means, and what a suitable definition might be. As emerging the new technology, a new definition emerged:

Transforming the Web into a database

Transforming the Web into database is the beginning step towards transforming definition of Web 3.0 when the technology of ‘Data Web’ emerged as structured data records that can be published to the Web in reusable and remotely query able formats, such as XML, RDF and microformats. The Data Web is the initial step in the way of full Semantic web that enables a new level of data integration and application interoperability, which makes the data openly accessible and linkable as Web pages. To make available structured data using RDF is primarily focused in Data Web phase. The full Semantic Web stage will so expand the scope that both structured and semi structured or unstructured content will be widely available in RDF and OWL semantic formats.

An evolutionary path to artificial intelligence

Web 3.0 has also been used to describe the rend of artificial intelligence, which is being popular in the web like a quasi-human fashion. Some cynic believes that it is an unobtainable vision. However, this is being used new technologies on mass level that yields amazing information like making predictions of hit songs from mining information on college music Web sites. There is also debate on the driving force behind Web 3.0. Will it be the intelligent systems, or whether intelligence will emerge in a more organic fashion and how people interact with it?

The realization of the Semantic Web and Service Oriented Architecture

Another debate originates over the artificial intelligence direction in which Web 3.0 can be extent to Semantic web concept. Academic research is going on to develop such reasoning software that must be based on description logic and intelligent agents. These sorts of applications can perform logical reasoning operations through using sets of rules expressing logical relationships between concepts and data on the Web.

But some critics are disagree on the viewpoint, which describes that Semantic Web would be the core of the 3rd generation of the Internet and suggests a formula to summarize Web 3.0.

Web 3.0 has also been associated to a possible hub of SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) and Semantic web.

Evolution towards 3D

The evolution of 3D technology is also being connected to Web 3.0 as Web 3.0 may be used on massive scale due to its characteristics. In this process Web 3.0 would transform into a series of 3D spaces, taking the concept realized by Second Life expansion. This could open up new ways to connect and collaborate using 3D shared spaces.

Proposed Expanded Definitions of Web 3.0

Nova Spivack has proposed the expanded definition of

Web 3.0 that indulge in itself the collection of various foremost harmonizing technology developments that are growing to a new level of maturity simultaneously includes:

• Ubiquitous Connectivity, broadband adoption, mobile Internet access and mobile devices

• Network computing, s o f t w a r e -a s – a – s e r v i c e business models, Web services interoperability, distributed computing, grid computing and cloud computing

• Open technologies, Open APIs and protocols, open data formats, open-source software platforms and open data (e.g. Creative Commons, Open Data License)

• Open identity, OpenID, open reputation, roaming portable identity and personal data

• The intelligent web, Semantic web technologies such as RDF, OWL, SWRL, SPARQL, Semantic application platforms, and statement based data stores.

•Distributed databases, the “World Wide Database” (enabled by Semantic Web technologies)

• Intelligent applications, natural language processing, machine learning, machine reasoning, and autonomous agents

Web 3.0 as Different Formats of Web

The Semantic Web

The term ‘Semantic Web’ refers to “Defined” Web that is an alliance of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and others to provide a standard for defining data structures on the Web. Semantic Web refers to the use of XMLtagged data that matches the Resource Description Framework (RDF).

Sometimes it is refers to” Web 3.0,” that is a debatable topic, but in the form of Web 3.0, the main goal of the Semantic Web becomes to identify exact required data that matches the keywords. e.g. if we search Web 3.0 in Google / yahoo / msn or any advance search engines using specific key words, there are millions of web pages appears on the window in which only very few have some information and all other pages are worthless.

Web 3.0 in terms of Semantic Web is the third generation of World Wide Web in which machines an read sites similar to human being and also follows our instructions. For example if you order to check your schedule against the schedules of all the dentists and doctors within a 10-mile radius if follows tour order and provide the appropriate information.

The 3D Web

3-D refers to the three dimensional design that represents the virtual looks of any object from three different sides simultaneously. A user can view the true picture of any building, any location or any object and walk through the location without leaving the computer desk on his/her system. Though these are the virtual pictures but seem to be real. These technologies are extensively being used in a wide range of services like computer games, Virtual Reality (VR) models and Multimedia solutions.

Now, 3-D technology has come on the Internet and has become a new trend of Web. Now user can go house hunting across town or take a tour of the world or can walk through a Second Life– style virtual world, surfing for data and interacting with others in 3D. The 3d web is being used massively in online computer games, virtual world tour, Geospatial engineering, online high tech research, online software development, online shopping, online telecommunication and social networking sites. Google Earth, Wiki Earth, MySpace, You Tube are the biggest examples of 3D web users

The Media-Centric Web

The terms Media-Centric Web refers to the web where users can find true similar graphics and sound on the other media, not just the keywords. E.g. if users searches any favorite movie/ graphics/ music in the search engines, can find the exact desired thing on the other media.

The Pervasive Web

The pervasive web refers the uses of web in the wide range of area in which the web has now been reached not only in computers and cell phones but also in clothing, appliances, and automobiles and much more, e.g. web based bedroom windows that checks weather and self open or close it according to climate.

Web 3.0 in terms of pervasive web refers to those websites, which are going to be transformed into web services and will depict and expand their information to the world.

Overview

As the times goes and he technology enriches, the experts feels to develop some thing better that can be more fruitful, advance, user friendly and intelligent. Thus originates the concept of web 3.0 and now it is taking a handsome shape. We 3.0 have some more features including the feature of Web 2.0.

Web 3.0 sites will only allow collaboration of content generated from an approved pseudo-random sequence of characters. Web 3.0 would have three main objectives:

1- Seeking Information

2- Seeking Validation

3- Seeking entertainment

Seeking Information

Searching information would be more compact in Web 3.0. Till now, the web uses keywords in order to comprehensive data into usable chunks. Search engines index the Internet in proper order and present it to the end user in order of relevance. The users select the information that is nearer to their requirement. Sometimes this becomes a very hectic process. But Web 2.0 goes one step ahead and brought us a change in the basic way of searching. It applies the tags in the searching data e.g. if anyone wants to look for car. He/she types the word in the specified space of the search engine. The search engine displays many webs, but if the user type BMW cars, it displays all the relevant site only\y related to BMW cars. So BMW works as a tag.

Web 3.0 will be more advance in searching the information for example of Cars, Web 3.0 uses the further research beyond the engines, it also uses the sub search engines that would provide more compact information and user can find the nearest desired data. It would go to all major categories like pictures, videos, blog posts, news articles, commerce etc. Each of these would happen because of RSS feed so that user can get alerts when something new would add to his/her search profile.

Seeking Validation

If the user wants to go the news not the information, it will work in a different way. It would provide the exact data what user wants. It would also search the available people on the net. The user have to type the words what he/she wants to access, Web 3.0 would provide the relevant information in order of its proximity, algorithms, tagging, and validation through user voting.

Seeking Entertainment

Entertainment, the most popular trend of Web 2.0 would be more advance in Web 3.0 as it would be based around the sect of the personality. People Search will replace the social networks that are most popular fashion in this generation of web. For searching about any person, just type the name and all the information related to regarding person would be displayed with some attached tags. If would display the total wiki profile,

In which all the data would be specified whether the user would have created it or anyone else. All the related deeds would also show in the profile. Then People would be more universal rather than now.

The looks and shape of the blogging would be also changed; the current weblogs would be converted in to Microblogging. People will be able to blog from anywhere, without having to spend hours writing a properly formatted post. Web 3.0 will see a more complete integration between devices like cell phones and the World Wide Web. Posting pictures, videos and text from anywhere, anytime would be more tussles free.

Commerce

Here the terms of commerce means the criteria of earning that will be more advance, but the whole criteria would not primarily change. The product will carry on to sell online. Conversational advertising” and detrainment will take the place of stock ads and promotions. Sect of personality and their sponsorships will also be more specific as the advertisement companies will be narrower because of categorizing of the people.

The entire advertising landscape will change; the ultra specialized sub engines will search the tightly focused target audience to selling the product.

Contextual advertisement will take second seat to product placements on sites, search results and sub engines.

Web 3.0 Design

REST, AJAX, Silverlight, Widget Enabled, Taggable, Searchable everything…

RSS. A Web 3.0 Driver

In the coming ten years RSS and its related technologies will become the single most important Internet technology because of its specific quality to development of the new web as it’s really very simple. Any person who has a little bit knowledge of coding can generate an extensible, standards based database of information that can be transferred to almost any other modern web site.

If Web 3.0 is the Semantic Web, where machine read content like human beings then RSS will be its eyes. RSS technology is still in vast uses especially in the online news portals. The entire business models have already being created around aggregating metadata. IGoogle, MyIndiaTims and Netvibes allow the users to create their own personal homepage, drawing much of its content from RSS feeds that users select.

The trend of RSS tool will be increased in the future in which user can include a host of data-points. Each blog post, the future microblogging feed can be personalize according to users’ desire as every picture, every video clip, every music will be searchable, taggable and XML based collaborate. The biggest example of it’s already exists in a web portal named MyIndiaTims.com’. The real power of Web 3.0 will be in the used in creating data and transferring it effectively. Candidate Web 3.0 technologies Web 3.0 would be used in various technologies of computer and Internet. Here is the list of web 3.0 users:

• Artificial intelligence

• Automated reasoning

• Cognitive architecture

• Composite applications

• Distributed computing

•Knowledge representation

•Ontology (computer science)

•Recombinanttext

• Scalable vector graphics.

• Semantic Web

__________________

References:

1. CSI Data communications

2. Time to Discuss Web 3.0-march 9, 2008, blog.

3. The article, “A More Revolutionary Web,” by Victoria Shannon that covers discussions from the 15th annual International World.

4. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bring the World Wide Web to its Full Potential, by Tim Berners Lee, et al.

5. “Web 2.0 Isn’t Dead, but Web 3.0 is Bubbling Up,” by Dan Farber-blog.

6. Web 3.0? Maybe when we get there.-blog

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B.Maheshwari
About the Author:

Lecturer,Dept of Informatics,

Alluri Institute of Management Sciences,

Hunter Road, Warangal-506001

India.

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Who’s Afraid of Youtube?

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Who’s Afraid of Youtube?


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Who’s Afraid of Youtube?

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Youtube is the number one video site in the world. In the states alone, it sees 75.43% of traffic in the online video category. Outside the states, in countries like Israel, it is ranked 4th most visited site (according to DNS survey). Its dominance in online video is even bigger than Google’s dominance in search category. And with a future where video content will constitute half of all traffic, Youtube is still expected to grow. Its fast streaming, ease of use and an unrivaled variety creates a video site that’s impossible to compete with.

In a free economy everyone strives to be as big as they can. Those who make it to the top have a better chance of staying there because they are in a better position to grow. You tube, for instance, holds a market share that is 50 percent bigger that following 64 video sites on the list, put together.

A monopoly over content distribution has a problematic potential. One that can be exemplified through another content platform: the movies: When the mega-plexes emerged, showing more than 14 films under the same roof, the smaller theaters began to close down. They could not compete with the unrivaled variety. The audiences voted for the better deal, better air conditioning and fresher popcorn. Today, small cinema houses hardly exist and a mega small amount of distributors decide for everybody what movies will be seen on the big screen. (And many of those “big screens” are not much bigger than a big screen TV). Once in the theatre you are also forced to watch a 15 minutes pre-roll of commercials despite paying a hefty sum for admission. Needles to say, the ones who benefit most from this situation are Big screen TV’s retailers.

(One note regarding this example: Youtube’s variety is not controlled by a small amount of people. However, with thousands of videos added daily, the site’s content has a unified shade of blur)

Now, I don’t want my young and flexible new media platform to become a grumpy, centralized platform too fast but I don’t think it is neither wise nor effective to stand in the way of progress. Thus the Monopoly of you tube over video distribution means that we need to reconsider the industry’s profit model.

The prevalent profit model based on amount of views (CPC, CPM) has an inherit glass ceiling since the bulk of the traffic is already at Youtube. Anyone who opened a video site can sum up his challenges in three words: Traffic, traffic and traffic. Being the reality what it is, a new profit model must arise that leans on three other areas: content, content and content

Commercialized content – Models like product placement that offer brands a real exposure and consumer involvement

Niche content – A defined focus, narrow or wide, that is easier to brand and market

Quality content– Professionally and semi professionally produced content so there’ll be something worth distributing and something for the advertiser worth getting behind.

 

*Post is from www.ravner.tv (english pag available)

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Daniel Ravner
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Born and raised in Israel, I studied Film and Theater in New York City where I earned the “W. Eaton award for excellence in playwriting” and the IFC’s sponsored Festeyeful “Best of Festival award” for my short film The Art of Talking to Girls.


My recent efforts include writing for prime time Israeli TV, commercials for US market of Israeli products, acting as artistic manager of an emerging artist’s theater festival and a new comedic play I wrote called The Chat and its Punishment is touring nation wide.

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Born and raised in Israel, I studied Film and Theater in New York City where I earned the “W. Eaton award for excellence in playwriting” and the IFC’s sponsored Festeyeful “Best of Festival award” for my short film The Art of Talking to Girls.


My recent efforts include writing for prime time Israeli TV, commercials for US market of Israeli products, acting as artistic manager of an emerging artist’s theater festival and a new comedic play I wrote called The Chat and its Punishment is touring nation wide.

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